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1.1. Moscow Kremlin

' XToscow Kremlin and Red Square, have uniform historical-architectural / objects and are included in the List of World Cultural Heritage1. The

XV monuments are symbols not only of Moscow but of all Russia.

For historical reasons the Kremlin is the material and spiritual embodiment of statehood, The Red Square is the focal point of peoples duties of the XV century as a market square at Torg, and at the end of XVII century the square received its present name Red, that means beautiful. Since the XIX century the Red Square has been the main ceremonial area of the first capital city.

Historical sources, in particular the Hypatian Codex, indicate that Moscow was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky in the year 1147. In 1156 "... at the mouth of the Neglinnaya river above the Yauza river on the Borovitsky hill was built a wooden fortress. Archeological exacavations carried out between 19561960 at the construction site of

Moscow Kremlin

1 Maksakovsky V.P. World Cultural Heritage. M., 2000. P. 370.

Kremlin Palace of congress provide some useful data. Scientist have detected remains of the fortress wall constructed in the XI1 centuary along the left side of the Neglinnaya river. The city was surrounded by a high wall which was about 40m at the base and up to 8m in height . The base of the shaft , kind of fortified wooden structure consisting of three rows of logs, kept lay across wooden hooks. The shaft was a wall of wooden log cabins of height up to 3 m and the walls were placed in two or three towers. The length of the earthworks and wooden walls reached 1200 m. Inside the Kremlin stood princely in boyar courtyard of the Palace and was built the Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist called the first on Moscow. When and who built the church of Nativity is unknown, because the information was not preserved.

The Kremlin was surrounded by courtyards of Moscow artisans; they were Great Posad in the modern district of Zaryadye.

New walls and towers of the Kremlin were built in the XIV century. Chronicle under 1339 tells that Grand Prince Ivan Kalita (13251340 period of government of state) was built in Moscow City of oaks... just in five-six months. He is represented in terms of the wrong triangle with the notched corner near the Borovitsky gate and occupied an area of two thirds of the modern Kremlin. To make Kremlin strong it consisted of two parallel walls of chopped logs linked by transverse contractions of logs. The space between the walls was filled with tightly paddled earth and stones. The thickness of walls varied from one to three fathoms. On top of the walls and on the walls were covered by boards and the structure had wooden canopy. In the walls were several towers: a square travel, and deaf six and eight. Completed tower had hipped roofs. The total length of the walls reached up to 1700 m. In the annals of the XIV century for the first time used the name of the fortress Kremnik, the Kremlin. Nothing of the buildings of the time of Ivan Kalita was preserved.During that period the scheme of development of the Borovitsky hill once and for all determined all further conversion that be in the Kremlin.

White stone walls and towers of the Kremlin were built by Ivan Kalitas grandson Prince Dmitry Donskoy (13631389 period of government of state). In 1366 he conceived staviti city Moscow kamen and then started to import stones from the banks of the Pakhra and the Moscow river. According to the calculations of the scientist, the archaeologist of XX century N.N. Voronin for the construction of the strengthening went to at least 54 thousand cubic meters of stone, of which 14 thousand cubic meters was required to be cut down. By this time in Moscow they already had their professionals the stone culters masons, who built an oak in the Kremlin the first stone cathedrals. Worked on the construction site diggers, masons, blacksmiths,and carpenters, who worked there 1367 just in 170 days, build the city[2].

The stone fortress stood on a solid Foundation, to keeps some sections of the wall to stand. The foundation and the body of walls were laid of wild, irregular shaped stones, and the walls were made of hewn outdoor units with the backing inside and lime mortar. The thickness of the walls ranged from two to three meters, the total length reached two kilometers. They were fortified with high towers of speakers, and six of them had a pass-gate. On the corners of walls check deaf round tower. All the walls and the tower top were covered with wooden roofs. The white-stone Kremlin was perfect by the time the building had walls with the first talking Russian guns. This fortress has withstood many sieges, but was never taken by assault. With the construction of the Kremlin walls and towers time of the reign of Dmitry Donskoy Moscow was called white stone. It is noteworthy that if the oak walls and towers stood for only 30 years then the stone withstood for more than 100 years.

The walls and towers of the Moscow Kremlin

Taynitskaya tower

In the second half of the XV century Prince Ivan III (14621505 period of government of state) Moscow became the political and cultural centre of the Russian lands. The stone building was filled with new ideological sense. In the years between 1485 to 1495 Italian archetects and Russian masters worked on foundations of old white stone walls to erect walls and towers that exist around Kremlin today. This took into account the traditions of Russian defensive architecture and the latest achievements of Western European fortification art of construction. Given that the Italian master had no experience with the suburban white stone walls and towers, the Kremlin was built of red brick. The internal backing was made of rubble and white stone and lime mortar. The dimensions of the walls varied depending on terrain and extent of possible threats from the enemy. On separate sections of their height (without teeth) ranged from 15 to 19 m. and a thickness from 3.5 to 6.5 m. The design of the walls allowed to conduct both the lower, with more than a thousand teeth, and the narrow loopholes,to the top fight. Thus, instead of the previously used Russian fortress construction wide rectangular teeth, the walls of the Moscow Kremlin are now crowned with battlements battlements. At the same time the walls were built 18 towers (in the modern Kremlin 20): 3 round corner, 6 pass gates, each of which had a whole system of fortifications of the deaf and 9, rectangular in plan with several combat tiers, platforms and battlements. Defence significance of the Kremlin is especially increased, when Prince Vasily III (1505-1533 period of government of state) ordered ...to make the moat of stone and brick, which cut the territory of present-day red square and connected with the rivers Neglinnaya and the Moscow river. In the plan the Kremlin is an irregular triangle; the total area of the modern Kremlin is 27.5 hectares. Each part formed by the Kremlin wall of the triangle has seven towers, considering the corner. The Kremlin towers were erected alternately, and alternately were currently their restoration. Towers have different functional significance and design: angular,

gate tower and dumb.

  • 1. Taynitskaya tower (height of 38.4 m), occupied the middle of the Moskvoretsky walls of the Kremlin and was first built in 1485. It was led by the architect Anton Fryazin, the chronicler noted that in the construction were made a secret passage to the Moscow river and the well. Till the XVII century on the top of the tower is timber superstructured with a hipped roof, and in the years 1670-1680 Russian masters instead of wood erected a stone top with an observation tower. The Taynitskaya tower was damaged during the retreat of Napoleons troops from Kremlin, and then was restored. In the years 1930-33 it had a gate and a covered well.
  • 2. Beklemishevskaya (Moskvoretskaya) tower(46,2 m) built by the architect Marco Fryazin in the southeastern corner of the Kremlin 1487. It was named after a boyar

Beklemishevskaya tower

Beklemishev, a later name for the Moskvoretskaya located near Moskvoretskiy bridge. It is a cylinder, completed by a number of machicolations above which rise higher than the tent built in 1685. In the tower there are preserved holes for the lower, middle and upper bouts. This is one of the few towers that are not exposed to serious reconstruction.

  • 3. Vodovzvodnaya (Sviblova) tower (57,7 m with a star 61,25 m) This was built in 1488 by Anton Fryazin and is located near the confluence of the Neglinnaya to the Moscow River. She had a well and a secret passage to the river. In 1633 it was installed with a water-lifting machine which pumped water from a well and lead it to a lined reservoir it is located at the top of the tower, hence its name. In the XVII century the tower was overbuilt with a long line top and a marquee completion, since then it has been repeatedly restored and reconstructed.
  • 4. Blagoveschenskaya tower (30,7 m, with the wing 34,45 m) built in 1488. Dumb,is her name and she is associated with the legend miraculous icon Annunciation. During the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the underground of the tower was a prison. In ancient times, the tower had gates, which in 1831 were closed.
  • 5. First Unnamed tower (34,15 m) This was built in the year 1480 near Taynitskaya, shes dumb. In the XVXVI centuries it kept gunpowder. In 1547 was destroyed by fire and in the XVII century it was built again, by constructing the marquee layer. In XVI11 century the tower was dismantled and then rebuilt. In year 1812 it was blown up by the french retreating from Moscow. It was restored in years between 18161835 under the guidance of the architect O.I. Bove.
  • 6. Second Unnamed tower (30,2 m) located to the The tower was located to the East of the First Unnamed tower and was built in the same years. In 1680, it was built four-sided tent with an observation tower and crowned the octahedron with a weather vane. In ancient times, the tower had gates, which were later closed.
  • 7. Borovitskaya tower (50,7 m, with a star 54,05 m) located on the site of an ancient outlet of the Kremlin is on its Western side, built in 1490 under the supervision of Pietro Antonio Solari. It was originally used for household purposes. The name of the tower recalls that when that on the Kremlin hill rustled the thick forest. In the XV century the square tower was covered by a wooden tent, in the XVII century it was built in three diminishing to the top of tetrahedron that gave it a pyramidal shape. In the XVIII century in the decoration of the tower were put the white stone pseudo-Gothic details. Further restorations have been discovered white-stone carvings, including a horseman with a spear an ancient coat of emblem of Moscow.

Vodovzvodnaya tower

Blagoveschenskaya tower

First Unnamed tower

Second Unnamed tower

Borovitskaya tower

Konstantino-Eleninskaya tower

  • 8. Konstantino-Eleninskaya (Timofeevskayan) tower (36,8 m) was built by Pietro Antonio Solari in 1490 and served for the passage of the urban population was the Kremlin. In ancient times, the tower had a powerful outlet the machicolation, the drawbridge, and passgate into the Kremlin. The name was given in the XVII century the Church of Constantine and Helen, which stood nearby in the Kremlin. In 1680 On top of the tower a tent was erected on the arched rectangular base. In 1772 the passage under the tower was closed, and in the XVIII early XIX centuries were dismantled the bridge and diverter machicolation were dismantled.
  • 9. Spasskaya (Frolovskaya) tower (67,3 m, with a star 71 m). Built in 1491 by Pietro Antonio Solari at the place where in ancient times was the main gate to the Kremlin. The tower had double walls made of large bricks between the walls were white stone staircase connecting it to five tiers. The main gate of the Kremlin was considered in the people saints, through they were forbidden to ride up on horses and pass with their heads covered. Over the gate with external and internal parties on the white boards were carved inscriptions in Latin and Russian, narrating the history of the construction 1624 25 the tower was topped with a tent, which had a Gothic design and white stone patterned carvings. In the middle of XVII century on the top of the tent hoisted the emblem of the Russian Empire was hoisted double-headed eagle. In 1658 Frolovskaya tower was renamed Spasskaya in honor of the icon of SpassSmolensk, placed over the gates of the tower from the red square, and in honor of the icon of our Saviour, who was above the gates of the Kremlin. The tent-top of the tower was built by Russian master Bazenom Ogurtsovym, in the year by 1625 Russian masters Virachey under the supervision of Christopher Galloway placed the main clock state, wherein the first clock in this tower was established in 1491 year. The watch that is on spasskaya tower today was installed by brother Butenop in years between 1867 and 1852.The watch occupies three floors of the tower. The tower was destroyed during the October fighting in 1917. Spasskaya tower has ten floors; in 1935 it established the first ruby star, the rays of which size up to 3.75 m.
  • 10. Nikolskaya tower (67,1 m, with a star 70,4 m) built in 1491 by Pietro Antonio Solari, and named in honor of the icon of St. Nicholas, which was established over a gate. In 1612, during the war with the Polish invaders, a peoples militia led by Prince D. Pozharskiy K. Minin entered the gates and liberated the Kremlin. In 1780, the Nikolskaya tower was built and completed In 1806 the architect C. Rossi erected above the quadrangle tower octagon with white stone lace detail and a tent. In 1812, during the invasion of the French troops part of the tower was destroyed, rebuilt from 1816 to 1819 in October 1917, the tower was badly disfigured from artillery shellings and was restored in 1918.
  • 11. Corner Arsenalnaya (Sobakina) tower (60,2 m) built in 1472 by Pietro Antonio Solari. Of their fortifications, it is the most massive, its walls are dissected sixteen faces, the base much dilated wall thickness 4 m. In the basement of the tower is a spring well with clean clear water extant. In the XV XVI centuries the tower was strengthened by an additional wall that envelope her in a semicircle. Originally called the Sobakina tower was located nearby from the court of the boyar Sobakin, and after the construction of the Arsenal in the Kremlin in the XVIII century it was called Corner Arsenal. In years 16721686 the tower he erected an octagonal tent, which ends openwork octagon with a roof and weather vane. In 1894 the interior of the towers were redesigned to store the Moscow provincial archives. The tower was restored in the period between 1946 1957.

Spasskaya tower

Nikolskaya tower

12. Senatskaya tower (34,3 m) This tower was built in 1491 between Frolovskaya and Nikolskaya towers by Pietro Antonio Solari. A dumb, square in plan, the tower in 1680 it was overbuilt with a stone marquee, which is crowned by a gilded weathervane. Until the end of the XVIII century it was nameless and only in 1790 after the completion of the Kremlin Senate building got its name. Inside the main volume of the tower are three tiers of vaulted rooms. The Dumb town is inside divided into tiers the lower tier and the complex mult-room connected to the chassic walls with laddersin 16761686 Dumb was built-on

Corner Arsenalnaya tower

Senatskaya tower

Nabatnaya tower

Troitskaya tower

Kutafya bridge head tower

Middle Arsenalnaya tower

Komendantskaya tower

  • 13. Nabatnaya tower (38 m) Dumb was built in 1495. Built-on tent with square top. It housed the alarm bell of the fire service of the Kremlin, which from 1851 to the present time is stored in the Armory Camber
  • 14. Troitskaya tower (76,35 m, with a star 80 m) This is the tallest tower the Kremlin, built in 1495, It has massive quadrangle and the six tiers in its base bunk basement with thick walls. All tiers are connected to each other by stairs. The name was given in 1658 on the nearby Troitskiy monastery compound. In 1516 over the Neglinnaya river was built a stone bridge, linking the Troitskaya tower with a guard bridgehead Kutafya. The gate tower served as a passage to the court of the Patriarch, from the mansions of the Queen and princesses. In 1685 the tower was built on multi-tiered-top, somewhat reminiscent of the Spasskaya tower. In the XIX century in the tower housed the archive of the Ministry of the Imperial court.
  • 15. Kutafya bridge head tower (13,5 m) defended the approaches to the Troitskaya tower the only surviving of the bridgehead fortifications of the Kremlin. Built in 1516 by the architect Aleviz Fryazin.The tower was surrounded by a moat and a river, the tower was a formidable obstacle to the besieging the fortress, she had embrasures for plantar battle and machicolations. The name comes from the word Kut a shelter, a corner. Tower never had coverage; in 1685 it was crowned with an openwork crown with white stone detail. In 19761977 the tower was restored, found in the frescoes of the XVII century restored lateral arched openings and two-tone paint for the walls.
  • 16. Middle Arsenalnaya (Granenaya tower) (38,9 m) built in the yearl493 1495, in early XVIII century, during the construction of the building of the Arsenal in the Kremlin got its current name. The top of the rectangular volume concludes with parapet. Inside three tiers covered by cylindrical vaults, connected by wall stairs. In 1680, it was overbuilt, since then it is crowned by an observation tower with a roof.
  • 17. Komendantskaya (Kolymazhnaya) tower (41,25 m) It is located to south from the Troitskaya tower, dumb, built in 1495, and rebuilt from 1676 1686. The name derives from the kolymazhny yard, located in the ancient Kremlin. In the nineteenth century it was renamed to the Komendantskaya, as commandant of Moscow was located near this tower.
  • 18. Oruzheynaya (Konyushennaya) tower (32,65 m) located between the Borovitskaya and the Komendantskay towers built in 14931495 next to the Royal Konyushennaya yard built 16761686.The Present name was given in 1761, when the Kremlin was built the buildings of the Armoury Chamber.
  • 19. Petrovskaya (Ugreshskaya) tower (27,15 m) built in 1480, is located on the south side of Kremlin between Taynitskaya and Beklemishevskaya. It got its name from the Church of Metropolitan Peter, which was located on a farmstead near Ugreshsky monastery, located in the Kremlin. In (1676-1686) near. In 1771, in the construction of Kremlin Palace under the supervision ofV.I. Bazhenov the tower was dismantled. In 1783 was restored. It was again destroyed by an explosion in 1812 and in 1818 it was newly restored by the architect 0.1 Bove.
  • 20. Tsarskaya tower (16,7 m) it is located at the Kremlin wall between the Spasskaya and Nabatnaya towers. In ancient times this place was a square wooden tower. Legend it that it got its name from the tower and Tsan Van the terrible the events that took place on the Red Square. On four pillars was elegant octagonal tent crowned by a gilded wing.

In the apt words of M. Y. Lermontov, Moscow Kremlin ... surrounded by embattled walls, showing off the heads of cathedrals, reclines on a high mountain, as the sovereign crown on the brow of the terrible the Prince, it still amazes us with its harsh strength, unique beauty and grandeur.

The study of the Moscow Kremlin, the walls of which a length of 2235 meters, showed that the wall height from 5 to 19 m, thickness from 3.5 m to 6.5 m were erected on the perimeter at different times, and 18, then 20 towers already initially differed in layout and appointment.

Oruzheynaya tower

Petrovskaya tower

Tsarskaya tower

Outside walls finish 1045 grooves in the swallow-tails (the battlements), a width of 12 m, the thickness of 6470 cm, height 22,5 m. In 14851516, in an effort to raise the technical and artistic level, the builders used the achievements of Russian and Italian military engineering. There were a few loopholes. At the foot of the walls are wide, covered with arched embrasures for firing of enemy heavy artillery.

Moscow Klemlin was created from the XV to XV[3] centuries by an advanced fortification, the public, state and religious functions. The architecture of the Kremlin was attractive and appealing the most people.

During the period of five centuries the Kremlin had repairs to the walls and towers. At the end of the XX century geolocational measure revealed that the Kremlin walls were at a depth of between 7 to 10 metres. Deep down the wall of Kremlin foundation there is a granite massif associated with limestone that makes a kind of concrete. The basement wall of the Kremlin is built of white stones, bricks and more white stones in the middle zone.

Architect C.I Rossi in his project in 1806 rebuilt Nikolskaya tower in neo-gothic style. On top of the rectangular tower an octagonal white stone with lace details and a tent was erected. During the reconstruction loopholes of the towers and other signs of military use disappeared. Nikolskie gates had bricks on top and the gates were repainted.

The architect O.I Bove in the years between 18171819 repaired Boroviskaya and Vbdovzvodnaya towers destroyed by the explosion from the retreating French Troops. Walls of Vodovzvodnaya tower had been treated of rust and battlements round and semicircular windows or rumars repaired. Tents were decorated in classic portico.On the Borovitskaya tower white stone, jewelry, shield with coat of arms above the gates and the basement of the house were rebuilt and restored. The restoration was followed by that conducted in the 1970s.

In the 1850s the first scientific work of restoration and repair of the Kremlin walls and towers was conducted by the architect F.F.Ritcher. In 1851 he oversaw the repair of Taynitskaya tower, which served the project of the middle entrance instead of two lateral ones. In 1857 F.F. Richter led the work on restoration of the Kremlin wall in the area from the Royal to the Borovitskaya tower, preceded from the tasks of the support wall to a safe and aesthetic condition 1. It was he who engaged in the theoretical development of new principles of reconstruction of ancient monuments of the Kremlin, and laid down the foundations for scientific restoration in Russia.

In the autumn of 1856 in the area between the Troitskaya and Taynitskaya towers collapsed revetment wall from the outside and renovation of the site was carried out by the architect P.A. Gerasimov.

According to the opinion of researchers of architecture Shenkov A.S. and Pavlova M.L. in the early XX century the walls and towers of the Kremlin were in relatively good condition overall, but had a number of weaknesses, which were primarily treated surfaces, and met battered and chipped tiles, rusty and broken forged parts. Special attention was taken during the restoration of 19111913, under the leadership of A.V. Ivanov, who screwed tiles to the iron strips, and fasten them to the walls. This method was made by the architect A.V. Shchusev, He referred to what was lost the character of antiquity. After a dispute, at first glance the Imperial Archaeological Commission (IAC) decided to drive nails as before. During this restoration, in addition to the repair of the tiles produced by the manufacturers of bricks, he reconstructed some metal parts on the towers, in particular at the Royal.

Nikolskaya tower was badly damaged from artillery fire during the fighting in 1917 and was rebuilt in 1918 by the architect N.V. Markovnikov[4]. 1918 to 1919 he organized all Russian Colleggium in the Museum Affairs, the preservation of monument of art and antiquities, the central state restoration workshops of the Russian Academy of material, culture and other establishments of this profile. He defined what actions were possible and achievable.

In the difficult years of the soviet state V.L Lenin examined and studied the conditions of the walls and towers of Moscow Kremlin. He approved guidelines to restore the walls and towers of Moscow Kremlin. After reviewing the project of restoration of the Nikolskaya tower, Lenin adjusted forward the completion date.

Guidelines to restore them, checking how the restoration is carried out. After reviewing the project of restoration of the Nikolskaya tower,Lenin personally checked the restoration process and progress. After reviewing the project of restoration Nikolskaya tower,he ordered to push the completion date forward because the tower torestore was not ready with sketches or engineering drawings He compared the situation to the period before October fighting in Moscow in 1917 and also compared it to the period before Napoleonic invation and fire in Kremlin in 1812. Preservation invation and fire in Kremlin in 1812. Preservartion of national cultural heritage was given some attention. Work of recovery of Beklemishevskaya tower was postponed because it needed more resources due to the severe amount of destruction it suffered.The upperpart of the tent only was demolished for repair.Expert report that it received glazed tiles to withstand the damaging effects from the sun and keep for some time making the tower look new for a langer period. The tower was restored in 1918 by the architect N.V. Markovnikov, which in 191419 was the chief architect of the Kremlin and carried out a complete restoration of walls and towers. The complexity of the restoration Beklemishevskaya tower was the fact that it does not keep accurate dimensioned drawings. Therefore, restorers I.V. Rylsky and A.A. Latkov used for reconstruction of the original forms of all the fallen parts, and preserved in the place were fixed in the initial position. The shingles were made on the old models. For comparison enjoyed old photographs. In 1935, the star was installed to the tower. In the years 194650 and in 197374 the tower again was underwent the restoration.

The next restoration and partial renovation of the walls and towers of the Kremlin were held in 1931-37 on the Spasskaya, Nikolskaya, Troitskaya, Borovitskaya and Vodovzvodnaya towers were installed ruby star as a symbol of a new era and the socialist statehood.

In the postwar period 194650 restoration work at the Kremlins walls and towers were carried out extensive restoration. A number of experts believed that it was necessary to restore the monuments to the original form, i.e. as it was in the XV century. Most respected restorers, such as D.P. Sukhov and l.E Grabar insisted that it was necessary to restore and preserve the Kremlin of the XVII century. On the Spasskaya tower from the inner side of the Kremlin were left with the ancient battlements, the tower was completes with to its add-ins in 1625. In addition, according to the trail preserved on the monument, loopholes, details of machicolations and other fragmentswere restored. During this restoration, the tile covering was partially replaced by painted metal sheets.

Restoration of walls and towers of the Kremlin in 196070-s wore supportive nature conservation. The main principle of its implementation was the preservation of original parts and replacement of items that lost strength had exact copies.

Under the leadership of A.V. Vorobyov was made a single project of restoration and reconstruction of the Kremlin walls and towers, preceded by conducting a natural architectural and archaeological research, was the study of archival sources and published materials.

During a comprehensive scientific restoration works were carefully examined and cleared of random laminations of the Kremlin walls and towers, which were refortified, and the decoration of all 20 towers completely refreshed. With the restoration works having been associated geotechnical surveying, architectural and archaeological research, the materials obtained now largely complement the history of the Kremlins fortification. All perimeter walls and the foot of each tower is laid in a pits.

Interest for conservators was represented by passable massive, oval in plane Kutafya tower, have no coating, and its walls were completed spans lace gables with railing typical decoration of the XVII century. At the top of the tower were the machicolations mounted loopholes inside the archway, which served to lower the combat, with slots for lifting the bridge over the river Neglinnaya. A fortification with two battle tiers a bridgehead of the Kremlin. By restorers has been disassembled upper arch and the tower remained open, connected with a stone bridge from the Troitskaya tower is the western entrance to the Kremlin. In such a way, during the restoration works were opened side roads at the bridge Kutafya tower and was made the passage to the Palace of Congresses through Troitskiy bridge and gate of Troitskaya tower. This work was led by the artist restorer D.N. Kuchinskiy.

In 2001 the decree of the Russian government of the Russian Federation approved the Federal target program Preservation and development of architecture of historical cities 200210. The uniqueness of the Moscow condition of preservation of its architectural heritage has demanded unprecedented measures for the protection of cultural objects from destruction on the basis of large-scale city-wide programmes the basic principles of which was the integrated conservation of the heritage as a key element of special measures of restoration of the capital.

Intensified restoration work in the Kremlin in 20032015 the research is carried round the Corner Arsenalnaya and Troitskaya towers of the Kremlin, which was in good condition. Restored and preserved red brick that makes up the wall. At the first time since Soviet times, major repairs on the Corner Arsenalnaya tower were made. The tallest tower Troitskaya, which was restored in 19461950 and again in 19741976 decided to be restored agene in 2010. Using modern technologies and materials of the renovated masonry, loopholes, removed the moisture, carried out waterproofing of the slabs preserved the decor of the tents and spires, updated decorative items, decoration of the upper tiers. Was updated the wing of Corner Arsenalnaya tower. In accordance with the ancient technology saved glass star of Troitskaya tower. At ruby star cleared the metal frame, replaced the rotary mechanism, and upgraded the lighting system instead of incandescent bulbs appeared energy-saving lamp metal halide. Saved peculiarity of the Troitskaya tower the availability of communications and habitability (previously here in the basement was a prison, wards was the treasury of Moscow princes and tsars, the archive of the Ministry of the Royal yard, now a rehearsal hall of the Presidential orchestra). Under Troitskaya tower stored underground chamber. In kiot of Troitskaya gates saved the Kazan icon of the Mother of God.

Scientific restoration and conservation in 2015 was held at the slender and beautiful tower of Kremlin Spasskaya. On the basis of modern technologies for reinforced


Veksler A.G. Moscow in Moscow. M., 1982. P. 57.

masonry, restored the marquee, restored the loopholes in its present form preserved decoration on the top tier sites, white stone details covered with a special compound. Was discovered immured in Soviet times the icon of the Holy Saviors image, placed in 1658 over the gates of the Spasskaya tower and restored. Overhauled the dial of the tower chimes. Previously to completely clean from scale and rust formed due to atmospheric precipitation of the steel plate. Numbers and hands coated with a special preservative, and then gold leaf. The turner was restored, through the territory of the Kremlin with the entrance to the Red Square at the Spasskie gate.

Targeted restoration measures, leadership support of the city and the public interest allowed to implement the restoration of a number of towers of the Kremlin.

In 2015, began the third stage of recovery from the walls and towers of the Kremlin, overlooking to the Moscow River, the restoration work carried out on Borovitskaya and Vodovzvodnaya towers. Through the Borovitskie gates will continue the passage to the Armory Chamber.

Currently, restoration work continues, the result is stored, recreated historical ensembles of Moscow the peculiarity of the construction of a fortress, a priceless element of our national culture, combining a monumental simplicity and austerity with the picturesqueness and the beauty, integrity with practical relevance. At Kutafya tower is placed a plaque indicating that the Moscow Kremlin is included in the List of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of UNESCO.

Cathedral square have a special place in the architectural ensemble of the Kremlin, on this square in XXI century were carried out extensive restoration work. They were preceded by engineering-geodetic researches conducted by specialists of the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MHGAiK).

When Prince Ivan HI Vasilyevich (14621505 time period of management) Moscow became the capital of the Russian, the successor of the Byzantine Empire and the center of Orthodoxy. During this period to see intense construction, as already noted, have created new walls and towers of the Kremlin, and inside the fortress were built of the assumption, Annunciation Cathedral, a little later the Archangel Cathedral, the Church of Deposition of the robe, the Hall of Facets, Ivan the Great Bell tower.

The Assumption Cathedral

Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin was considered as one of the most significant symbols of the Russian statehood. At the present time the existing church is the third stone cultural building of Cathedral Square, built as envisioned by organizers of the capital. Experts believe that it was preceded by the wooden buildings of the XII century, stone building of the XIII century, stone Church of the XIV century and the unfinished building in 1472[5]. Some researchers believe that even before the stone churches of Ivan Kalita were established, there were graves that were located near the Church which had not survived.

The formation of the Cathedral as a symbol of a strong state began in the period of governance of Prince Ivan Kalita. By his efforts in 1339, he organized the construction not only as a defence construction which is mentioned in the chronicle as grad dubov,

The Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin

but also the first stone churches. One of them was the Church Dormition of the Theotokos and was intended to be the main Church for metropolitan cathedral of Metropolitan Peter who came to Moscow. In the year of the beginning of its construction in 1326, its formation was based on the study of the chronicles'. The appearance of the Church became an object of attention of specialists in the XX century.

Researchers attempted to reconstruct a Church and highlight its typological features. N.N. Voronin suggested that the form of the new cross-domed church with a high crossing be deliberately chosen to focus on the role of the first capital, by analogy with the desire of many local schools to emphasize the power of local reign for a specific period[6] . Zagraevsky S.V. noted that the church elements of which were available for study after the excavations at the end of the year 1960, was built on the basis of hard white-stone masonry, which was typical for historical period ambitious economy. Moreover, Ivan Kalita, according to opinion of experts, aimed to create grand princes minimum buildings in its capital: Assumption Cathedral as a cathedral and burial vault of metropolitans, Church Savior on Bor as housing, Church Michael Archangel as Princely burial vault. In this way, already by the XIV century the Assumption Cathedral began to play a dominant role in the ensemblement of the Kremlin buildings.

The increasing role of Moscow in the second half of XV century became a significant reason for major changes in its architectural outlook. The old Church, after more than 150 years of its existence, became dilapidated. As a result of the latest fires that bloke

out in 1470, the white-stone began to crumble too. In 1471 a decision to contract a new structure was reached and in 1472 it was dismantled and a new one was laid[7].

When builders of the new church were invited, constructors Krivtsov and Myshkin of which virtually nothing is known about them. These began construction of the Cathedral which was very similar in size to the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir. Metropolitan Philip was inspirator and initiator of construction of the new Cathedral. The author of one of the chronicle sources in year 1477 advised that it is necessary to take as a model the construction Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir of the period of Andrey Bogolyubsky reign: ... assembly right-believing Grand Prince Andrey Bogolyubsky, grandson of Monomakh. The construction of the Church was laid at the same place where during the reign of Prince Ivan III took place. Thats why A.V. Ikonnikov stressed that the Church should become the symbol of the city, contrasted with the garishness of the local architectural schools. At the same time the Church was reminded about succession of crown by Moscow Princes from Vladimirs generation with byzantine imperial origins of Vladimir Monomakh. Not by accident the researchers Kloss B.M. and Nazarov V.D. consider that the most attention in Russian chronicle writings devoted to process of preparation and construction of church.

When the Catheral was Constructed almost to the roof, the building suddenly collapsed from the north-eastern side in Spring of 1474. Experts evaluators from Pskov gave an opinion that the collapse was due to not adhesive lime, and this was also confirmed by research scientists who also commented on the sub-standard work. When Podyapolski S.S., studied the archival data, he noted that the work on laying the foundations was carried out hastily in the month of April. He also noted that the foundation that was laid before thawing in of the soil could have contributed to the disaster. The fate of the Church was connected with the search of new masters. It is interesting to know that experts from Pskov after examining the ruins of the Cathedral in the Kremlin, again refused to build it.

New marriage of Ivan III with Sophia Palacologus, whose arrival in November, 1472 contributed to the establishment of closer relations with European countries (and first of all with the Italian States, experienced the rise of cultural Renaissance), which seriousy influenced the choice of builders. As a result of this, a delegation which was headed by Semen Tolbuzina was sent to Italy to recruit architects.

The trip was successful and in 1475 bologna master Aristotele Fioravanti came to Moscow. He was well known, primarily as an engineer. Upon his Arrival in the capital with his assistants he immediately began the process of building the demolition which was saving after collapse of the Cathedral. Sources records that he completed it very quickly what was built three years, broke in one week or less. Aristotele overlaid it with brushwood walls, burning and crash it by ram[8]. Italians enriched the Russian practice of construction with advanced ideas relating to the composition of mortars, the combination of stone and brick, masonry new methods, mechanisms, etc.

It should be noted that in the Russian chronicles is preserved a lot of information about the construction of the Assumption Cathedral. Besides the descriptions of the ceremonies of the consecration of the Cathedral, the transfer of the hallows of Metropolitan Peter and other Moscow sanctifiers are present and some technical details

So, there is evidence that Aristotele ordered to dig a trench much deeper than his predecessors, up to 4 meters and put up oak piles. This corresponds to antiseismic structure of the foundation, which was well-known to Italian masters of the time. For the production of bricks, he ordered to build a new kiln and its bricks were of better quality. It is also noted that the Italian came up with a mortar that once it dries, the knife would not cut. Moreover, the architect did more like light iron rods, which fastened arches and their foundations without fear of rotting like wood. The Italian used mathematical compass and straight scale. He pointed out that the size of the new Church was bigger than the old and highlighted the role of Ivan III in its creation. Information has that the roof of the Church was covered by masters from Novgorod, as ordered by Ivan III. In the Chronicles there is also mention of the fact that Aristotele implemented in the construction the wheel (blocks), and as a result of it.....Construction of the

Assumption Cathedral was completed in 1479 and dedicated by Metropolitan Gerontius on 12th of August. In ancient Chronicles it is recorded that such kind of a Cathedral in Russia has never existed before. The Cathedral was built as a one whole stone that is monolithic and majestic.

The Cathedral, which was built by Aristotele, was relatively transformed from its predecessor, giving the square a rectangular shape and thus stressed the centrality of the new Cathedral.

The architectural skills that went into the Assumption Cathedral is rather unusual for Russian architecture. The six-pillared five-domed Cathedral with 5 apses of white-stone blocks in line with the backfill inside the masonry, Arcs, vaults and drums were made of brick. In so doing, the size of bricks was 28x16x7 centimeters. The walls and vaults above the Western porch are made of other big bricks (30x14.5x8 centimeters, as well as 22x11x5 centimeters). Black Floor of the Cathedral was not always made of solid brick, and white slabs of white stone diamond shape of 17 centimeters thickness.

In plan the Cathedral consists of twelve equal squares without isolation from the Central dome space, based on cross vaults with size 6x6 in one brick that does not require massive support. In the opinion of V.V. Kavelmahera, such kind of vaults was

used in Moscow architecture for the first time and as a result the Cathedral was crossruffed as it had one whole levitate over all of the compartments of its monolithic arch, six point supports, along with the sails-strikings and with perfectly straight lines. The use of these materials by Aristotele was probably only for decoration[9].

The head of the Church of nontraditional shifted to the eastern direction to bring it into conformity to tradition of the location of the primary drum above the ambon. Here he had to solve the problem of the relationship between the appearances of the Church with a centric arrangement of the main dome with the inner differences. As a result, he set the diameter of the central drums almost a meter longer than the hole beneath it. A generated space was to be used as a dead drop. The architect enhanced the apse, increased their number to five because besides the high altar had to be placed chapels that existed in the previous Church Veneration of the Precious Chains of St. Apostle Peter, Praise of the Virgin and St Demetrius of Solun. As a result the apses of the aisles turned out to be double.

The roof coating is made by arches of equal height and the square of the square-mesh of vaults are the same. Contrary to the prototype in Vladimir (in chronicles palace), the interior has an appearance of a hall characterized by the feeling of a larger volume. Four round post minimum diameter of 2 meters made of brick faced with white stone 30 centimeters of width make the Church more spacious. In addition to that, there is also a two square brick which is also combined with the altar barrier to separate the Eastern part of the Cathedral.

Lighting of the modern buildings of Assumption Cathedral consists of ten squared windows and seven altar semicircular shaped windows. However, it is known that Fioravanti in the center of the Western facade created another window that provided lower light. The window was under the roof of the porch. This is the only lower windows of light that had subsequently (during the big renovation 1683) not been expanded. The original appearance of the windows were restored by architect K.M. Bykovsky during the restoration of 18941895.

The facades of the Church are equally divided with the help of the pilaster-strip, giving the appearance of stillness and solemnity. The apse is relatively low with hidden pylons in the South and North sides. Divided parts of wall ends by arched gables were semicircular shaped. The decor of the Cathedral is rather unassertive and includes a wide arcaded-columnar zone with slit-like forms of windows. However, it can be said that the repeated reconstruction and restoration works has not preserved us the details of the archivolt-arched Gables, completions blades, and formed columnar zone on the facades.

The Consecrated Cathedral stood for some time without painting, until in 1481 when the great icon painter of the time, Dionisius started work with his apprentices. Unfortunately, the only thing that has survived to the present time is a small part of his altar paintings and a few icons, particulary of significance, the Cathedral Dormition of the Mother of God. Not all of them can be seen today, as most of them were closed by the iconostasis. Many others have not survived since they suffered in fires. The original painting remaining in walls since 1513, was lost.

According to Tsars order in 1642 year more than 100 painters headed by Ivan and Boris Paiseiny worked hard to create an even more luxurious interior, which was restored, repeating old stories. As a result it created 249 composition and 2066 figures by using a mixed technique offresco and tempera letters on dry plaster. The iconostasis, preserved until today, was performed by icon painters from Yaroslavl and Moscow, and it contained about seventy icons. Its composition has undergone changes in comparison with its predecessor because during that time, Patriarch Nikon, carried out the reform of the Church and the Assumption Cathedral, as the principal, it was to reflect the innovations of his time. The design of iconostasis was changed thanks to very expensive silver icon frame in to deesis, instead of the traditional Rus, martyrs and saints they deliberately introduced the twelve apostles familiar to the Balkan churches. Later Nikon, repeating the Greek tradition moved the icons of local rite putting to the right the Holy doors of Savior Manuil in Novgorod, and the Virgin of Vladimir to the left. In such way, iconostasis of Assumption Cathedral became a model for all Russia[10]. In year 1673 under the supervision of famous icon painter Simon Ushakov was created Holy Image of the Saviour Not Made by Hands and Most Holy Mother of God with Sancti under the South doors. And besides that, many hallow icons from all over Russia were transferred to the Church. Thus, in 1395 to protect the Russian lands from Khan Temir-Arsak, from Vladimir was brought the Virgin of Vladimir. Her intercession and Khans refusal to continue the crusade was seen as another miracle, since her stay in the Assumption Cathedral with short breaks would become regular and important from the point of view of beatific protection of the Moscow rulers. This tradition emphasized the central importance of Moscow as the capital of the Russian lands, and the role of the Assumption Cathedral in the life of an orthodox state.

The Assumption Cathedral became the place of coronation of the Russian rulers. This ceremony was first conducted on the son of Dmitry and then later Ivan III laid the foundation of wedding tradition on the byzantine model. The Cathedral witnessed the brightest events of the Russian history and it has hosted the weddings of Boris Godunov and False Dmitry, Vasily Shuisky and the first Romanov-Mikhail. The last coronation of Nicholas II occurred at the same Cathedral in 1896.

Among the most significant moments in the life of the Cathedral are the ruin of the property of the Cathedral in the Time of Troubles, the subsequent restoration of its material prosperity in the 30s years of the XVII century and the ensuing reconstruction work in 1653, and post-fire reconstruction in 1683.

Reforms of Peter the Great, related to the transfer of the capital to St. Petersburg and liquidation of the Patriarchate that curtailed drastically the income of the Cathedrals possibility of reconstruction and restoration. Still more the financial condition of the Cathedral went nose diving after reforms of Catherine, The Great Catherine Cathedral in 1764 which had seized his land holdings.

Events of Patriotic War against Napoleon in 1812 tragically affected the structures of the Assumption Cathedral. In spite of the fact that part of treasures had to be evacuated, many were kept in desolate: icon frames, chandeliers and so on. In addition to desolation the enemy desecrated the Cathedral by setting a device into the hearth for melting gold and silver in the amount of 325 pounds of silver and 18 pounds of gold according to the inscription on one of the pillars. The Cathedral was used as a stable for horses, making bonfires, and as a result it damaged the murals and deforming more than 375 icons. In the process of Kremlin liberation, Russian troops found piles of dung and rotting vegetables

and desecration of hallows. The restoration of the Cathedral after the war became an important state task, which was performed gradually[11].

The history of the restorations of the Cathedral is no less interesting than the story of its creation. The researchers ensured that none of the Italian church does not suffer from various afflictions as the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Fragmentary use of the grounds of the Cathedral Krivtsov and Myshkin has become a cause of deformation of the walls. In an effort to alleviate the top of the building, Aristotele made the arch with one brick layer. Wooden roof was covered with tin and did not do a garret which was the cause of perpertual leakage that resulted the fire. In 1493 lightning strike burned the Cathedral including the tops, but they were eventually rebuilt although traces of decor were still evident. The fire of 1547 cracked the porch and burned columnar frieze above it, now its original appearance one can only guess. In subsequent years, especially after the Time of troubles, the Assumption Cathedral was in disrepair as from fires or from differential settlement of foundations. Due to numerous updates and upgrades for the next coronation the Cathedral image has since changed.

It is known that D. Taler and B. Ogurtsov in years 16241625 were repairing the Cathedral because the arch was threatened to fall. The Masters disassembled every last brick and later re-laid with existing deformations. During XVIIXIX centuries the wall decorations were changed and new windows were made that changed the outlook and form of old windows and portals. Changes were also made to the entire basement and lower walls to a height of 4 meters. According to V.V. Kavelmahers opinion the most significant changes in the image of Cathedral was made in 18941895 by Moscow archaeological society, which was headed by K.M. Bykovskiy. So, K.M. Bykovskiy changed wooden texture of walls and V.V. Kavelmaher was cleared from whitewashing the working surface of white stone masonry. Other major changes that were carried out were uncovering cement joints between the stones, windows of the low light of quadrangular frame were partly reconstructed. The plinth around the building was changed and incorrectly restored by its altar window.

A new Commission for the reconstruction and restoration of the Great Assumption Cathedral, headed by A. A. Shirinsky-Shikhmatov (work was made by architect I. P. Mashkov) worked in the Cathedral from the years 1910 to 1918. An important achievement of its activities was the decrease in the level of the square, the restoration of the plinth and other studies related to the preservation of the Cathedral paintings. Meanwhile updates and new materials were made from the Southern and Northern portals and in the Northern portal are seen remakes ancient decoration carved pillars, changed, despite the found fragment is authentic. As it seen on the photos taken before the restoration works of 1894, the Cathedral was around the base of two core units. There are disputes about what was done right and what is not. However, for the first time full measurements of

the building were made, allowing the researchers to get the materials for further study, comparison with reference to Cathedral of morden construction and renovation, had been restored and uncovered some ancient icons and frescoes[12].

The events of the revolution of 1917 broke the peaceful life of the Cathedral, which led to the dome being damaged but was quickly reconstructed. The Cathedral in 1918 was closed in connection with the change of status of the Kremlin and the transfer of the government to it. In 1922, the temple was transferred to Management of the museums-cathedrals of the Kremlin, and in 1924 to the jurisdiction of the branch of the Armoury Chamber. Valuable contents of the Cathedral began to distribute in the National Reserve, Rudmetalltorg, Antiquarian, Antireligious Museum with the loss of many valuables. The roof and walls of the Cathedral was not paid much attention and they came to the emergency state.

In 1934 a Commission for surveying the state of the monument was established, but its work was only resumed and was not completed because of financial and staffing reasons. Many instaurators were repressed. During The Great Patriotic War the Assumption Cathedral was camouflaged, but work on its reconstruction or survey was not carried out. At the end of 1944 the Committee of Arts Affairs of the USSR were allowed to create the Central art-restoration studio, of which its experts began to study the historical and architectural monument of the Kremlin. In 1946 a separate reconstruction and restoration works in painting resumed. This work was headed by I.E. Grabar, who had to look for instaurators all over the country. Executive group of studios organized work on planning for the restoration of paintings and buildings. However, only at the beginning of 1960 was made a comprehensive architectural and archaeological study of the Assumption Cathedral. Its results became the basis for major restorations from 1974 to 1985, which affected the entire building from foundation to dome of the Cathedral. The most pleasant temperature conditions were set to protect the building and painting from condensation. The foundation was reinforced, the roof replaced and the heads and gold plated were cleaned.

In 1979 was celebrated the 500 anniversary of the Assumption Cathedral, although the monument itself was still in the false work and inaccessible for visitors. For the anniversary the albulm was released and it held a conference on materials which later published a collection of articles. The opportunity to visit the Cathedral was only in 1983, not counting the days of the Olympic Games-1980. Since 1990 Amusable of the Moscow Kremlin was included in to the World Heritage List of UNESCO. Since 1991, in the Cathedral, despite the conservation of Museum status, sacred services were resumed, and the full completion of the reconstruction works relates to 1995.

In the XXI century a small work was done on the facade restoration as well as the Northern and Southern portals of the temple roof. Replacing degraded blocks of white stone socle. Along with the restoration of the old doors in the portals was set new door units, manufactured in accordance with ancient samples.

The rationalism of the architecture of the Assumption Cathedral are no additions of later time, despite numerous repairs and restorations having retained the grandeur and beauty of the original design of the Church.

In the XXI century were carried out low works on restoration of the facades as well as North and South portals of the temple roof. In 2007 construction company

KREAL, which for many years was headed by the graduate of MISI MGSU D.Sc. Almazova N.M.[13], conducted a comprehensive engineering research of the bearing capability of the foundation of the Assumption Cathedral, conditions of its walls and vaults. Scientists of KREAL company proposed recommendations for the restoration works on the basis of which later underwent a comprehensive restoration. Cracked and broken white stone blocks in the basement were replaced together with the restoration of the old doors in the portals installed. New door frames were manufactured in accordance with ancient samples and replaced.

The rationalism of the architectural work of the Assumption Cathedral, are no additions of later time; despite the numerous repairs and restorations, the greatness and beauty of the original conception of the temple were preserved.

The Annunciation Cathedral

The Annunciation Cathedral for many centuries was a domestic church for the Moscow Princes and Tsars. The building of the Annunciation Cathedral which stand to this date is the third to be built on the same place.

The first Cathedral was probably built in the period between 1360 and 1390. It was a small single-domed Cathedral on a high basement built of white stone blocks. Its technique was a seamless masonry box, to which later was added the apse. From the first Cathedral only the basement was preserved, which is the oldest part of the now existing Cathedral, and is a nearly square room measuring 7x7 meters. In the center of the basement is a pillar supporting low arches and resting on it are diminished arches. In the South wall of the basement there is a window and a door opening.

In 1416 the Annunciation Cathedral was rebuilt. The upper tier of the first Cathedral and the original apse were demolished, the basement walls were lined with blocks of white stone and the corners were folded under the feet of the pillars of the arches of the second tier. The Cathedral became a triapsidal, single-domed, cross-building, having four internal piers. The facade of the Cathedral, the upper part of the drum and apses were decorated with a carved belt. During the years 1910, also at the end of 1960 and at the beginning of the year 1970 and partiularly during the restoration work in 2005-2007 large number of whitestone details of the Cathedral were found. They found blocks with the curb from the upper decoration ribbon, carved belt of the Cathedral, the blocks of the next row of masonry which was under the flagstone, as well as fragments and parts of other units. Findings testify that the belt of the Annunciation Cathedral in 1416 consisted of three carved bands.

The Annunciation Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin

The Annunciation Cathedral was burned down several times and by the end of the XV century it had fallen into disrepair, therefore, the great Prince Ivan III made the decision on its breaching and building again. In 14821483 the Cathedral was breached. The construction of the new building of the Cathedral was entrusted to Pskovs architects because the skills of the architects were considered the best at that time in Russia[14]. At the same time when the building of the Cathedral was inprogress, another building of the Treasury chamber for the storage of the Imperial treasury, which was adjacent to the Cathedral was also under construction.

The third Cathedral was build of bricks on the same foundation in 14841489. The Annunciation Cathedral and the church of the Sacred Robes (1484-1486), which was built by Russian builders connected with the traditions of Pskov, Vladimir and early Moscow architecture.

In its original state the Cathedral had the shape of a cube, crowned with three light heads one in the center and two on the East side of the Cathedral, which were surrounded by covered galleries church porch, or ambulatory-ries in the basement with two wide shoots. The average Chapter in its base is surrounded by a corbel arch. The wall of the Cathedral is divided into three parts. The middle part is wider than the lateral and ends by tropeic arched gable and decorated by arcaded frieze. Under the eaves of apses is stretched a frieze of white stone balusters. Inside the Cathedral the four pillars supports and strengthens the arch. In the North-West corner of the Cathedral it is thicker with a brick wall making a spiral staircase leading to the choir. The floor in the central part of the Cathedral is lined with flint blocks. The Northern porch of the Cathedral, overlooking to the Cathedral Square, was the entrance not only in the Cathedral but also in the Grand Palace.

14991508 near the Western facade of the Annunciation Cathedral was build Grande Palace under the guidance of Milanese Alaisio da Carezano. During that time the North and West church porch was also rebuilt with further changes on West and

North portals. In 1508 the Cathedral of the Annunciation was painted by the artel of artists headed by Theodosius besides the Bible stories about secular motifs: images of Byzantine Imperators and Russian Princes, ancient philosophers, writers, scientists. In the interior the floor is made of jasper, moved from the Cathedral of Rostov the Great. This was the completion of the construction of the Cathedral.

After the great fire of 1547 the Annunciation Cathedral was renovated. In the year 1560 on the corners of the porch that surrounded the Annunciation Cathedraland on the floor arch were erected four aisles with small domes. In 1564 consecration aisles of the St. M ichael the Archangel Cathedral, Synaxis of the Most Holy Theotokos, St. Basil of Caesarea. In 1566 there was concecration aisle of the Entry into Jerusalem. It was represented by domed pillarless temples, covered with torispherical vaults with load-bearing casing, built of small bricks. At the same time on the Western arches of the Cathedral were set two domes which were slightly to the east and wider in size. The Cathedral become nine-domes, its domes and the roof was covered with sheets of gilded copper, that is why the Cathedral was populary known as the golden domes. This created an upward picturesque architectural composition of the Cathedral of the Annunciation.

In the middle of the XVI century the Southern porch and the Southern antium of the Cathedral was built. During the work the South wall of the porch, and the arches were dismantled. On the old foundation was erected an open arcade, covered by cross vaults and antium, leading into the Treasury chamber. The entrance to the porch, to the Treasury chamber was made in the form of carved white-stone portals. On the upper floor of the antium was built a wall of small bricks with two-part white stone window decorated with carving.

At the end of XVIII and beginning of XIX centurys dilapidated groin vaults of the South parapet were replaced with diminished arch, arched openings between the carved half-columns and pillars that lay out and turned into a blank wall with the doorway. It is believed that at the same time they changed the position of the window and the portal on the antium which was constructed in the epoch of Ivan the Terrible.

In 1822 the interior of the South-Eastern aisle was rebuilt, which was consecrated in honor of Faithful Saint Prince Alexander Nevsky. The facades have been changed, ancient window frames laid and made new, the walls and vaults are plastered and painted.

In 1836 upon the project of architect I.L. Mironovsky, to the South-West corner of the Cathedral of the Annunciation was built the sacristy. On the southern facade of the porch instead of an open arcade they built a wall with window openings. At the level of the first tier are arrays of ancient walls that have been preserved.

In connection with the completion of construction of the Grand Kremlin Palace, from his Georgievsky hall was constructed the way to the choirs of the Annunciation Cathedral.

In year 1860 there was a fulfillment of works on the restoration of facades and interiors of the Cathedral. Roofing was replaced, which was gold plated in a galvanic way, extended narrowly in the XVIII century window in the Central apse, the South and North facades of the quadrangle. In the cornice of the apse they discovered ceramic baluster which was recovered and contained in them decorative frieze. Three chapels (in addition to St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral) laid new flooring of white slabs, a pattern which imitated the ancient carvings and additionally replaced the design of the iconostasis.

In the year 1880 during the restoration work, they completed flooring at the Northern and Western porches, replacing window and door units throughout the Cathedral, as


Kachalova, I.Y, Mayasova N.A., Shennikova L.A. The Annunciation Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. M 1990. P. 36.

well as project N.V. Sultanov made a new iconostasis and the grating on choirs. Special attention was paid to the murals.

During the preparation to the 300th Anniversary of the House of Romanovs (1913) in the Annunciation Cathedral they replaced the cladding of the base and, due to the lower level of the Cathedral square, they made the new North antium with steps on three sides.

After the restoration at the end of XIX century and beginning of XX century major changes in the design of the Cathedral had not taken place.

The unique iconostasis of the Annunciation Cathedral, the oldest among multilayer iconostases since the beginning of XV century. The first layer of the iconostasis contained of the icons of the XIV-XVII centuries. The second and third layers were written in 1405 by Feofan Grek, Andrey Rublyov and Prokhor of Gorodets. In the fourth layer the icons of the XVI century were made by the Pskov masters. The fifth layer was created in the XIX century. The frame of the iconostasis was made at the end of XIX century according to the drawing by the architect N.V. Sultanov embossed gold plated and the gates are made of embossed silver.

Painting of the walls and vaults of the Cathedral, which was made in 1508, after the fire in 1547 was partially renewed by masters from Novgorod and Pskov. In 1648 re painting was done by the painter Ivan Filatov, in 1771, by the decision of Catherine II the murals were again updated. In 1882 the painting of the Cathedral was cleared from pollution with restoration of damaged areas by the academician of painting V.D. Fartusov, but in 1884 the ancient murals were written by the iconographer N.M. Safronov.

In the Soviet period the greatest volume of restoration works in the Kremlin was made in 19521955, before opening it to the public. There was restoration of the original image of the Southern portal of the Annunciation Cathedral and the newly gold plated dome[15].

In the year 19771978 instaurators reconstructed the loss due to atmospherical condensation (atelier 13 of Directorate Mosproect-2, architect I. Ruben, engineer I. Freimark, consultant V. Fedorov).

The main purpose of reconstruction of the Annunciation Cathedral by the Moscow Kremlin Museum in 2006-2010 was to solve constructive and technological problems and preservation of this remarkable architectural monument.

General scientific supervision of reconstruction works was carried out by the Deputy General Director of the Museum, Doctor of Arts A. L. Batalov.

The reconstruction project of the Annunciation Cathedral was created on the basis of field research done by a team of First Architectural and Construction atelier of Central scientific and restoration design ateliers (GUP CNRPM) in 20052006 and also forms the basis of available for research archival materials, scientific supervisor of this team I.V. Kalugina, the authors of the project G.S. Evdokimov, A.M., Dzisko.

Restoration of the white stone parts is made by members of the Interregional scientific and restoration artistic department (MNRHU), scientific supervisor E.I. Antonova.

Restoration of monumental painting is done by members of the Interregional scientific and restoration artistic department (MNRHU), scientific supervisor D.V. Sarabyanov.

During the work, the restorers have a unique opportunity of comprehensive full-scale study of the monument. The results of these architectural and archaeological researches have become invaluable evidence of its construction history. For its demonstration of the most valuable findings in the exposition of the Cathedral, made architectural overture, allowing

you to see the most interesting fragments and parts hidden within the walls and ceilings. During the restoration of the rooms in the basement of the North porch were found the fragments of the basement part of the Northern facade of the Annunciation Cathedral. In overtures today you can see the border between the outer surface of wall of the first Cathedral and covering of the walls of the Cathedral which was built in 1416.

During the restoration of the Eastern facade were found the footing course of the base of the Cathedral built in 1416, which helped to restore the contour of its altar.

In the course of the works between the years 20062008, they found confirmation of adjoining of the Treasury chamber to the East wall of the Annunciation Cathedral. They also found and restored a doorway from the basement of the South porch of the Cathedral in the basement of the Treasury chamber

In 2007 the facades of quadrangular frame was surveyed and the result was educed that authentic white stone semi-columns of the end of the XV century are preserved only in the interior of North-East aisle, others were made during the restoration in the 1880s.

As a result of restoration with white stone columns and half-columns of the Northern antium of the Cathedral was removed a layer of cement plaster, restored the original form of their capitals, made demineralization and strengthening of a white stone and a new design of front doors revealed previously hidden columns.

In 20072008 during the process of restoration of the Western and Northern facades of the Annunciation Cathedral porches were restored together with lost or distorted profile of the archivolt, cornices and panels[16].

In 20082010 were executed works on the restoration of the aisles of the Cathedral. After removing the plaster, careful study and measurements of the authentic details of the facades were returned to their original design, they were restored using small bricks. Maintenance was carried out repairing the brickwork around the perimeter of the facades of the quadrangle and aisles. During the restoration works to strengthen the walls in the aisle of St. Alexander Nevsky was restored pilaster-strip that were lost during its rebuilding in the year 1822.

The restorations of the South antium started from the portal and installed in the East wall in the XIX century. Pilasters were removed as a result of the loss and cracks due to corrosion of their metal parts, which necessitated the dismantling of the archivolt of the portal. The portal and window in the course of restoration works were returned to the original location. During the process of installation of white stone, some parts were deleted from the metal fittings to avoid corrosion and destruction.

During the studies of the southern facade of the Cathedral it became apparent that the archivolt of the second layer used carved blocks of white stone archivolt of the open galleries of the middle of the XVI century. Their thread is similar to a white marble carving of the columns, the frieze of the portal and windows of the South antium and pieces can be seen in the soundings of the archivolt of the second layer of the southern facade.

In 2006-2010 years restoration work package for the Cathedral of the Annunciation in the Moscow Kremlin was made. Field research which was held in the Annunciation Cathedral during the restoration has allowed answering many questions concerning the history of its construction and condition of the architectural monument at the beginning of the XXI century.

Archangel Cathedral the third stone Cathedral, which is an integral part of the architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.

The Church of the Deposition of the Robe

At the same time with the Annunciation Cathedral the same masters from Pskov in the years 14841485 from the West of the monumental Assumption Cathedral was built the Church of the Deposition of the Robe. Tab took place on the day of the Christian feast of the transfer from Palestine to Constantinople of the robe of the virgin, hence its name. The robe of the mother of God was venerated as the Shrine, guarding the city from invasion of enemies. It was considered the protectress and patroness of Moscow. Researchers believe that the prototype for this building served as the Cathedral of the Andronikov monastery, built in the early XV century. Presumably, the Muscovites watched the work of invited artists, without allowing significant deviation from the traditions and techniques of the Moscow architecture.

The Church of the Deposition of the Robe is small, single-headed. In terms of shape it is typical of the early Moscow architecture of the iconic square, with three apses to the East and four bearing arches of the ceiling and square pylons inside. This is a traditional, to set on a high basement cube with the roofing on the keeled zakomaras. To the South entrance of the Church is a lofty porch, and on the North and West sides adjacent to the porch, over which in the second half of the XVII century, built on the gallery. The Church is built of brick with a small amount of white-stone details. Its composition had some influence on the development of Russian architecture of the XVI century of which part of the Cathedral consists of various size and decoration of the parts, indicating the desire of the builders of contrasting forms to emphasize the importance of this small structure. Construction of the robe Church made it the home of the Metropolitan and the Patriarch. The original paintings of the walls of the Church were not preserved. Paintings that exist today were made in 1644 by icon-

The Church of the Deposition of the Robe painters of the Royal Osipov, Ivan Borisov and Sergei Abramov. With elegant, colorful frescoes, harmonizing four-tiered iconostasis, three of the top row of which the icon Trinity is made in 1627 by the painter Patriarchal Nazariy Istomin-Savin. In 1655 the Church was ceded to the Royal Palace, to the mansions of princesses and Queens, with which it is linked by covered walkways. The proportionality of architectural form, the elegance of interior and exterior decor, makes this Church one of the remarkable monuments of the Moscow Kremlin[17].

The architectural appearance of the Church over the centuries of its existence has changed several times for various reasons: due to numerous fires, destruction and later rebuilding. Restoration work to return the Churchs original appearance was carried out repeatedly

During the years 19191922 comprehensive restoration work in the Kremlin were removed by the late extension of time on the South side of the temple and restored the shape of the Windows and the South portal of the XV century. In the years 19301940 the original coating restored the temple at the Gables, dome shape, the Northern and Western portals of the XVII century and demolished the carves as late extension. This resulted the images of the caves of virgin to be lost forever. But After the restoration in 1965 terracotta frieze in the apse of the Church acquired its modern look.

To preserve the integrity of the monument, study and restoration of individual architectural details or elements that were lost or modified asa result oflater reconstructions, regular restoration and cosmetic work on the facades and in the interior of the Church of Lords robe deposition. For example, in 1996, on the Northern facade of the Church, in a recess, was uncovered mural on the motif of the temple feast of the deposition of the robe of the Holy virgin, the creation of which belong to the XVII century. In 2006 on the East wall of the North porch of the Church, above the stairs, were partially cleared away the remains of paintings of the late XIX century. In connection with its late origin, it was decided to complete the restoration and reconstruction of lost parts of this picturesque story, while in respect of ancient painting during the restoration most often used only method of preservation of the surviving fragments. In 2008, the painting was completely cleared, strengthened and finished. In the same year, were cleared and restored brickwork and color decoration of the North portals of the Church from the porch.

Currently in the North gallery of the Church is the exhibition of the carved wooden sculpture of XVXIX centuries from Moscow, Novgorod, Rostov and monasteries of the Russian North.

Archangel Cathedral the third stone Church, which is an integral component of the architectural ensemble of the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin.

The Cathedral of the Archangel

In ancient Russia important places in the capital city were occupied by tomb cathedrals. One particular outstanding architectural monument of the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin is the Archangel Cathedral the burial place of the Moscow grand dukes and Tsars.

Researchers believe that the cathedral had two predecessors. The first wooden church was created under Prince Michael Khorobrit (brother of Alexander Nevsky) and is dedicated to the Archangel Michael, with the patronage of the Russian princes turned to military affairs. People came in the temple before the military campaign, and later, princes of Moscow unifiers found their resting place1 here. Daniel the first prince of Moscow and his son George were also buried here.

As mentioned, at the beginning of XIV, updating and restructuring of the center of Moscow had started. According to chronicles, reportedly, Duke of Moscow Ivan Kalita built the first stone Cathedral of the Archangel in 1333. Temple was built quickly, in just one season outside the fortress, and only after the completion of construction of the first stone temples and after fire in 1337 new Kremlin walls included them in inner space[18]. Like other churches, it was built from Moscow myachkovskiy limestone. Probably the temple was one-domed, but there is little information about its forms. It is known that altars dedicated to the heavenly patrons of the sons of Ivan Kalita were created. The paintings were made during Simeon Proud (1344), and after the campaign Tokhtamysh (1382) in Moscow, in 1399; it was re-painted by Theophanes the Greek with his students. However, frequent fires and changed roles of Moscow as the capital of centralized state, adverse weather events had made it necessary to update it.

In 1505 the church was dismantled. Ivan III ordered the construction of new cathedral which was done by Italian architect Aleviz New who arrived in Moscow in 1504. The construction was completed in 1508 under Basil III. North and west facades of the temple faced towards the Cathedral square, south facade to the Moscow River.

The Cathedral of the Archangel

1 Panova T.D. Kremlevskie usypalnitsy. Istoriya, sudba, tayna. M., 2003. P. 33.

Its placement in one line with Cathedral of the Annunciation completed the formation of the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin[19].

Milanese Aleviz New erected a temple in the tradition of cross-domed architecture of Ancient Russia, decorated it in the spirit of the Italian Renaissance. From the beginning, the temple was built as multi-chapel. According to Kavelmaher V.V. the architect built a seven-chapel temple, three of them were altar, and other four were sleeping areas. Later, the number of chapels changed beacause of the need for new burials that triggered changes in internal partitions of the chapels and significant restructuring. Some external chapels were unconventionally not attached to the corners of the temple, but to apses. For example, the researcher explains that the imposition of the altar of St. John the Baptist outside of the building was due to the need to make room for the royal tomb of Ivan the Terrible.

On the plan, the cathedral is rectangular in shape with almost six squared crosssection pillars and semicircular arches, with the middle nave made wider than side ones. The facades have three division from north to south and five from West to East and end with zakomaras, which are decorated with white-stone carved shells and completed with caved pyramids. Archangel Cathedral has five-domed apses, its central dome is covered with gold leaf, and the sides with white sheet. The heads are shifted to the east; drums of various diameters are arranged asymmetrically, giving the dynamics of the architectural appearance of the cathedral. The temple walls are made of bricks with size 30x14x7 cm placed mortar, with cross laying. Cap and decorative items are made of white stone.

Architect Aleviz New paid alot of attention to the external decorations of the Archangel Cathedral. On the facades of the building with high strongly profiled plinth stand pilasters with elaborate capitals. This was for the first time used in the Russian construction elements of classical order system. Horizontally belt on the outside, dividing the building into two tiers; the northern and western facades, decorated with carved white stone portals, covered with gold and various paintings, all of this is reminiscent of the Italian Renaissance. Many features of the design of the cathedral later took root on Russian soil; and will be embodied in other church buildings.

From the west narrow room, built out in its lower tier is posted an open loggia on the south and the north side which has its spiral staircase leading to the chambers of the upper tier. Western and northern portals of the cathedral are decorated with white-stone carvings of floral ornament. The simplicity and conciseness differentiate white stone framing of the small side entrances leading to the chapels of the porch from the west. The walls of the western loggia in the XVI century were covered with frescoes. A number of times the Cathedral altered its appearance, internal division and interior details.

In the first half of the XVI century from south and north of the Archangel Cathedral open galleries were built, also restructuring of the altar pillars was made. As a result of restoration work in the 16801681, southern and northern pre-altars were rebuilt. Archangel Cathedral conducted repairs during all of the XVIII century, in the first half repairs were led by LF. Michurin and in the second half by D.I. Ukhtomsky. North Gallery was dismantled and the two buttresses designed by VI Bazhenov laid in the

south gallery in 1773. Perhaps it was the time when helmet-shaped dome was replaced byonion-shaped[20].

Already in the second half of the XVI century to the side apses on the east side of the cathedral walls were cut and two small domed chapel were attached: in the name of St. Varos, originally consecrated in honor of the feast of the Protection of the Virgin, which was renamed in 1847, and in the name of John the Baptist, which was built anew in XVII. In the XVIII century, on the north side of the cathedral, architect M.F. Kazakov built portal, which was dismantled in 1920.

In 1826, a small two-story building for its ministers was attached from southwestern side of the cathedral.

The interior of the Archangel Cathedral was made in the traditions of ancient Russian churches, walls are painted characteristically for Russian art in the second half of XVII century in bright, colorful and decorative manner. Religious themes are in harmony with historical subjects. The original cathedral was painted supposedly in 1509. After a fire in 1547 murals of the Cathedral were updated by Novgorod and Pskov masters. In the Cathedral there was a special order of presenting images of saints, as the princes of Moscow emphasized the continuity of its power from Vladimir, Kievan princes and the Byzantine emperors. Among the images were Mikhail the founder of a dynasty Palaeologus, Kiev Prince Vladimir, Princess Olga, the great Prince Andrew Bogolyubskii, and Alexander Nevsky and others. Painting significantly decayed by 1652 and was removed, so the fragments of painting of the XVI century preserved only in the sanctuary part of the temple. Work on updating the painting of the cathedral was carried out from 1652 to 1666. Along with the Moscow artists also participating in them were painters from Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Vologda, Veliky Ustyug. Druzhina of 52 painters, headed by Yakov Kazanets and Stepan Rezanets, it included Fyodor Kozlov, Fyodor Zubov, Ivan Filatov, Sidor Posneev, Joseph Vladimirov, etc. The selection of artists was conducted by the famous painter of that time, royal icon painter Simon Ushakov. Once again, murals and iconography of the temple were renovated in 1678. After a fire in 1737, the cathedral was renovated. In 1772, a temple mural was restored within two months by the team of 120 people from the clergy, including those called from neighboring dioceses. In 1826, the artist T. Kiselev updated paintings. In 1853, the wall paintings of the cathedral were restored under the direction of artist N.A. Kozlov.

The ancient iconostasis of the cathedral was renovated in 16801681, it became a four-tiered with icons painted by famous artists of the second half of the XVII century. Dorotheus Ermolaev-Zolotarev, Mikhail Milyutin and others. Archangel Cathedral was looted and damaged during the invasion of Napoleon in 1812, and after the expulsion of the French it was restored to its previous form. In 1813 a new iconostasis, made in Baroque style was installed. It had icons ofXV-XVII centuries., Among which the image of the Archangel Michael with the scenes from his life, according to the legend, written by Andrei Rublev and ordered by the widow of Dmitry Donskoy Grand Duchess Eudoxia. The painting of the cathedral is solemn and monumental. Images of the acts of the Archangel Michael, paintings, explaining Creed, and others are in the nature of preaching and edification.

Beginning of the next period of restoration and renovation of the cathedral dates back to the time in 1864 when heating was done, iconostasis was renovated.

Archangel Cathedral illustrates a chronicle of Russian history from the Princess Olga to Ivan the Terrible; it presents more than 60 images of real historical figures.

Therefore, in the south-west pillar there is a portrait of Alexander Nevsky, in the northwest portrait of his son Daniil Alexandrovich, on the south wall there are images of the Moscow princes from Ivan Kalita to Dmitry Donskoy, at the entrance to the temple, there is the image of Vasily HI.

Archangel Cathedral for three centuries served as a temple-tomb of the Moscow grand dukes and tsars. In them were buried Ivan Kalita, Dmitry Donskoy, Ivan III, Vasily III, Ivan the Terrible and his sons Ivan and Fyodor, brother of Peter the Great Ivan, Emperor Peter II, and others. In total, there are 46 princely tombs set in the Cathedral. Above the tomb of the youngest son of Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Dmitry, remains of which were transferred from Uglich in 1606, a white stone-carved canopy, surrounded by a cast bronze bars was set in 1628. Silver bas-relief on tombstone with image of Prince Dmitry, created in 1630 by kings best minter Gavrila Ovdokimov with teammates, is now kept in the Kremlin Armory. The coffins are buried under the floor of the temple, in the ground at a depth of 1.5 m., on top of the graves are risen white stone tombstones, built in the 16361637s.

Much of the architectural sculpture of the Archangel Cathedral, its decoration, eventually became a part of the arsenal of artistic means of Russian architects.

In 19031906 Archangel Cathedral went through restoration works, to mark the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty (1913). Floor in the cathedral was replaced from iron to stone. Tombstones placed in the temple were covered with bronze glazed cases. Murals of the cathedral were examined by painter N.M. Saforov. A.V. Shchusev Museum of Architecture has collection of photographs taken by K.A. Fischer in 1905; it includes 31 pictures, which reflects the process of restoration[21].

After the events of October 1917 The Cathedral was declared a monument of culture and heritage of the Soviet republic, but the Cathedral was not used as a museum until 1955. Facades suffered damage in the revolutionary events and needed restoration. 35 female holy graves of queens and princesses were moved from the destroyed New Jerusalem Monastery into the basement of the Cathedral.

During the work on the cathedrals restoration in 1920, portico, adjoined by architect M.F. Kazakov, and a wooden vestibule, that closed the western entrance loggia murals were dismantled. Serious restoration works began only in 1946. This year, central research and restoration design workshops under guidance of A. Vlasyuk performed measurements and outlined the restoration project. Employees of the Moscow Kremlin museums VI. Fedorov and N.S. Shelyapina made pits under the floor of the cathedral and found fragments of masonry and flooring dating from the era of Ivan Kalita. In 1953-1955 restoration of an ancient painting of the Cathedral was done by the artist V. Bryagin, Bryagin D., N. Bryagin, Ovchinnikov, Nikolai Milovanov, A. Kuznetsov and N. Tilikin.

In 1969, major works were held to find the remnants of an ancient church on the site of the Archangel Cathedral. During the excavations, parts of the base built of rough stone and mortar were found, which gave reason to believe that the first building of the Archangel church already existed at the end of the XIII century.

In 198090 main task of the restorers was to strengthen and to preserve white stone facade of the Cathedral. In 20002003, specialists of the Central Scientific Restoration project workshops conducted field studies of the underground chamber beneath the cathedral at the southern outbuilding and concluded that the chamber is a preserved part of the cellar, mentioned in chronicles in 1485. Researchers found that the cellar had above ground floor, which preserved fragments of walls and mark of the northern wall on the masonry inside laying on present Archangel Cathedral building[22].

In 2005 project of restoration of carved white stone portals of the Cathedral started. In preliminary works, experts of the Russian Research Institute of Restoration and Central Scientific Restoration and Design workshops, examined the state of the church portals. Due to the serious damage, it was decided to dismantle damaged parts to carry out restoration work in the laboratory, followed by the installation of the restored fragments in place and ensure their integrity. At the same time, there was development and implementation of measures to prevent causes of the destruction of the white stone portals.

In 2007 interior restoration of the chapel of St. Varos was done. In 2010, restoration work on three white stone sarcophagi of Grand Prince Vasily II, Ivan III and Vasily III was completed in the interior of the Archangel Cathedral. Metal frame case with copper caps got new glass produced and inserted into. The interior of premises of the southern gallery of the Cathedral recieved replacement of technical equipment. After research, they did restoration of the masonry arch, sealing of jointing of white stone masonry buttresses, plastering the outside arch of galleries and painting of brick walls and vault. White stone buttresses and walls of the Cathedral with the remnants of the old paint were left without finishing works. Premises received new floor of pine boards on wooden beams resting on the newly laid brick columns.

In 2011, restoration of the southern facade of the Cathedral was done. In the course of works facade was cleaned and washed with water, window grilles and other metal parts of the facade cleaned from old paint and rust, replacement of the destroyed white stone cornice blocks was done, walls were plastered with lime mortar and painted with lime-toned paint, metal parts were primed with red lead and painted in facade color.

In 2012, restoration of the Cathedrals west facade was carried out. At the beginning of the work, cleaning the surface was done. During restoration of the facade by employees of the State Research Institute of Restoration ruined site of white stone crowning cornice over the northern pilasters but was restored. Brick surface of the walls were plastered with lime mortar. Facade, window grilles, forged designs cover of the Cathedral were painted. Northern facade of the portal received metal arched canopy to protect the white-stone carving from weather. In the interior of the south porch, carpentry works were done on restoration of the doorway of the portal in the south gallery of the Cathedral. Restoration of XVIIIXIX white stone portal was made in the southern gallery Cathedral. Polychrome floral and ornamental paintings were restored.

In 2015, competition for the design and survey work on the restoration of the Cathedral was held. Experts believe that if the organizers of the competition are museum workers, we can expect high quality of work[23].

Thus, currently one of the most important activities of the Moscow Kremlin Museums is to perform functions of the contractor to carry out conservation and restoration work to ensure safety, structural strength of the architectural monuments in its use. Examination of current state and restoration of the Cathedral, as well as other monuments of architecture of the Moscow Kremlin, is performed annually and systematically.

The Palace of Facets

To the west from Cathedral square was Monarchic court residence of Great princes, and, after, tsars. For many centuries of its existence, tsar palace was situated here and was reconstructed numerous times. Today, there are only parts of the palace left, most famous among them is Palace of Facets grand throne hall for receptions at grand palace of Ivan III.

In historical documents dated 1487; there is a record of a decree issued by Prince Ivan III Vasilyevich to form the grand chamber. His idea was that majestic gold-domed cathedrals and pompous monarchy mansions would make an impression of might and power of the new centralized Russian state with capital in Moscow to foreign ambassadors.

For construction of the throne hall Italian architects Marco Ruffo (Marco Fryazin) and Pietro Antonio Solari (Pyotr Fryazin) were invited. They were experienced architects, who built a number of buildings back home. Its known that Marco Ruffo was a military architect in Milan. Pietro Solari studied construction trade from his father architect and sculptor Guiniforte Solari, together with father he participated in construction of Milan Cathedral and several churches, etc.

In 1487 master started construction of Bolshaya chamber, which went down in history with the name Palace of Facets. Pietro Antonio Solari continued and finished his work in 1491. Ivan III imbued with great respect to this Italian architect. In chronicles he is mentioned as architecton, not ward-maker as was usual at the time. Milan archive f stored a document for a long time signed by Solari, where he calls himself chief architect of Moscow.

During construction of the Palace of Facets Italian architects used experience of Russian colleagues. First masonry civil building of Moscow considered chamber of metropolitan Jonah of Moscow (1450) in The Moscow Kremlin. For chambers architecture it is usual to have a square column in the middle of the hall to support arches. Such architectural design was relevant for almost two centuries. This design was used in Moscow Russia to construct stone chambers in Moscow region monasteries.

The Palace of Facets

Monks used them for dinning all at the same time. The Holy Trinity-St. Sergius has an example of such dining chamber, constructed in 1467 by architect V.D. Ermolin[24]. It can be presumed it served as a prototype for Italian architects, who started construction of the Palace of Facets in The Moscow Kremlin. Following an old Russian tradition, Italian architects built in the form of square in plan, one-pillar brick chamber with crossshaped inner flooring. The chamber was placed on high semi-basement floor dedicated to household premises. Main part of the building eastern faqade, which overlooks to the Cathedral square, masters decorated with white four-edged faced blocks. Technique to produce them Italians borrowed ideas from architecture of Renaissance era, known as diamond-pointed rustication, thanks to that, the Grand chamber got its name as the Palace of Facets. Smooth stone surface of side facades were colored to brick color. Palace was roofed with for sloping surfaces; windows were done in rectangular ogival arches divided by columns. Most part of the building is occupied by throne hall which is 9 meters in height, illuminated by daylight from 18 windows on three sides, and in the evening by four massive bronze lightning fixtures, similar to ancient Novgorod chandeliers. For more than two hundred years The Palace of Facets was considered the biggest throne hall with total area of 495 square meters. After construction of the Grand Kremlin Palace, The Palace of Facets was included into new complex of palace buildings and connected it with Vladimir hall through the Holy hall.

Interior and frescos of The Palace of Facets fascinated contemporary people by its magnificence four cross-shaped arches with biblical frescos on them leaning on massive central column, decorated with white-stone carvings of birds and animals. The column itself in that time was twined by bronze grid with several rows of chandeliers on it. During the ceremonial reseptions, there were tables covered with colored silk cloth around the column. Tables were furnished with expensive dishes: golden and silver bowls, cups from cornelian,

Hall of the Palace of Facets

amber, jasper, ladles inlaid with gems, and toast bowls. All this magnificence shined and shimmered with colors. In the right part of the eastern wall throne of the monarch was situated a throne that was carved from dark oak, and decorated with golden canopy.

First frescoes of the walls of The Palace of Facets were done during the reign of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich in the middle of XVI century. Moscow painters decorated walls and arches of the chamber with biblical frescoes about the creation of world, first people, their lapse from virtue, paintings of Jesus Christ, evangelists and prophets, and also recreated portraits of Russian monarchs, representatives of Rurik dynasty[25]. Numerous fires in XVII century, from which the Palace of Facets also suffered, took their toll on preservation of frescos. Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich Romanov issued a decree to paint the Palace of Facets. This work was given to iconographer Simon Ushakov. He put together an estimate which stated the number of craftsmen needed for work in the Palace of Facets: "... 50 skilled iconographers, ...for the Palace of Facets there is need for gold and paintings for frescos: red leaf gold 100000 leafs, light blue paint, green paint, different earth colors, 16 buckets of linseed oil, 200 yards of linen.

In March 1672 Simon Ushakov together with sacristan Nikita Klementev made an inventory of frescos and wall paintings in the Palace of Facets of Monarchic palace. He did this very thoroughly, piece by piece, which indicates a big sense of responsibility of artist. From saved written sources it is known that S. Ushakov recreated all pictures from XVI: iconographic scenes, themes from Russian history, paroemias.

In 1702-1704 by decree of tsar Peter the Great, fresco paintings were whitened and, by the fashion of that time it was covered with magenta velvet embroidered with

two-headed eagles. Proof of that you can see in engravings and in paintings'. Such Interior of the Palace of Facets persisted until 1881. In 1882 emperor Alexander III, soon after his coronation, ordered to renew ancient frescoes. Skillful iconographers from Palekh Belousov[26] brothers took the task. They were not chosen coincidentally. Palekh traditions with their clear-cut shapes of figures, contrast of color compositions, narrative pictures were suitable to the assigned tasks. Walls of the Palace were covered with wooden screeded panels and painted according to Simon Ushakovs inventory. These paintings became a great example of ancient Russian pictural art.

What is special about frescos in the Palace of Facets is that they unite religious stories with historical and daily gaft themes. The main idea of those frescoes was to promote monarchy rule. There is a particularly interesting painting where Kievan Tsar Vladimir Svyatoslavovich lectures his twelve sons on how to live right and rule wisely. Central column were painted with ornaments in oil-painting technique

There are three staircases leading to the Palace of Facets: Golden Red (Russian , Krasny) in old Russian means very beautiful), this staircase was used by the Russian monarchs on particularly festive ceremonials; The Middle one and Annunciation one were used by foreign ambassadors and merchants, provided that Annunciation staircase could be used only by Christians. Besides those staircases there was another entrance for servicemen boyars and house serfs, which leaded to Boyar court. From this court Tsars decrees were announced.

Front Golden Red staircase had 43 stairs, four marches, and three landing platforms, decorated with lion sculptures. After coronation in the Assumption Cathedral, Russian monarchs went up to the Red Porch, covered with red cloth, and kneeled to the people on the Cathedral square. On usual days Red Porch was closed by carved bars, painted with golden and red paint and was guarded by Streltsy.

In XVIII early XX, Russian monarchsand monarches solemnly entered to the Red Porch and walked to sacred services in Kremlin Cathedrals.

There are several of old customs tied to the Red Porch. As is tradition, people came to the red porch, leaving their horses or carriage closer or further away, depending on their rank. Foreign ambassadors and noble foreigners left their carriages nearly 30 steps away. Noblemen of lower ranks dismounted horses at Ivanovskaya Square and approached Red monarchy staircase bare-headed. If Boyar rode right to the porch, he would be severely punished: he could be put in jail or even stripped of nobility rank. Only monarch himself had right to ride to porch. As an established custom, weapons were not allowed in the palace, there were no exceptions neither for boyars neither for foreign ambassadors. For European nobility, to give away sword was considered a dishonorable act, which led to numerous confrontations. Vigilant guards guarded the Palace by night and day. Main guards, with up to 300 people, were stationed near the Red Porch, in the basement of the Palace of Facets.

Pomp of the audience with monarch was felt by foreign ambassadors and foreign guests long before the entrance to the main Kremlin throne hall. You could enter throne hall through Holy Hall small elongated room, which in old times served as waiting

hall for visitors. Priests of the Kremlin cathedrals met and blessed monarchs after their coronation.

In old times Holy Hall had an exit to the Cathedral Square through Red Porch and a staircase. Inscription above the doorway tells the time when Holy Hall and the Palace of Facets were built: Buildings were laid during the reign of pious and great prince Ivan Vasylyevich HI in the summer 1487[27]. Holly Hall got its name because of frescoes from Holy Bible stories: Old Testament Trinity, The Appearance of the Archangel Michael to Joshua, The Dream of Constant and two stories connected with Russian history, one of them shows blessing of Dmitry Donskoy by Sergius of Radonezh to the Battle of Kulikovo, second one about choosing a religion by Kievan prince Vladimir. First version of the frescoes was not preserved, but by the inventory of Simon Ushakov, famous Russian artist Zavyalov Fedor Semenovich recreated ancient frescoes.

For female part of royal family, attendance of which was forbidden by etiquette on many ceremonial receptions, there was a small secret room with slatted and curtained window above the Holy Hall. Through this window monarches and princesses could watch meetings of the monarch with foreign ambassadors and other celebrations, where royal women were not allowed. Thick cloth on walls and ceiling and thick felt on the floor, muffed voices and steps, so that women could discuss and exchange their opinions on what was going on down there.

Unique feature of the Holy Hall is six gilded and decorated with carvings doorways, one of which leads to the Palace of Facets, second one leads to Vladimir hall of Big Kremlin palace, third leads to the Terem Palace. Other three, made in XIX century, are fake and made for symmetry.

In the Palace of Facets most important events in the Russian history were celebrated. Ivan the Terrible celebrated the conquest of Kazan in 1552; Peter the Great celebrated victory over the Swedes at Poltava; Catherine the Great awarded her commanders on the occasion of the victorious Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca with Turks in July 1774, which commemorated free sailing of Russian ships in the Black sea.

Besides luxurious receptions, council of boyars and district council were held in the Palace of Facets. Right here, in the grand hall of Russia in the 1613 district council was held, which elected Mikhail Romanov to reign the country, on last council in 1653, decision was made on reunification of Ukraine and Russia. In 1767 for the first time The Legislative Commission, gathered by Catherine the Great, was held in the Palace of Facets to make new code of Russian laws.

In 2016 the Palace of Facets will clock 525 years old. For more than 5 centuries it was on fire multiple times, was affected by other hazards, thats why the building needed repair and restoration. To modern days building came with some changes. First large-scale works on restoration of the Palace of Facets dated 1684. Main documents that evidence these works are contractor note and description of works, made by stone works journeyman Osip Startsev. Contractor note dated May 31st 1684 states that: ...journeyman Osip Startsev with companions were contracted for repair works in the Palace of Facets. To make windows in the hall walls to the Palace side and to the cathedral of the Annunciation side. Windows had exact height and width, as was instructed. Above the hall doorway, all uneven spots had to be aligned, tiled and dismantled to make new cornice, to make iron breastplates and corner pieces

as required. The chamber was to be made under iron roofing and to lay round truss. The old one was decided to brought down and new one brought up. Bad spots on the wall were be repaired with bricks.

For work described above, to pay Osip from Great Monarch treasury 475 rubles.

Osip signed contractor note for all described above[28].

Works done according to contractor note were quite extensive and cumbersome. Windows were made in the Hall wall, new cornice was made, stone buildings were reinforced with metal trusses and brackets, cracks in the walls were closed up with bricks and stones, new trusses were made under the iron roofing, etc.

Work on renovation of facade windows allegedly were made in 1685. Lancet windows were made into wider ones with pompous platbands in shape of columns twined with grapevine and decorated with fantastic plants, which was typical for baroque. Corners of the building were framed with twined columns, which supported the cornice.

Osip also made over contract work. He built two secret rooms from stone above the Hall doorway of the Palace of Chambers. From these secret rooms princesses and monarchess observed what was going on in the throne hall.

Restoration was finished not later than 1685.

Restorators were always interested in the original outlook of the Palace of Facets. When they studied archives, it became known that originally central column of the chamber were decorated with relief white stone carvings. In 1920-s art historian N. Pomerantsev discovered an alabaster cast copy of the ancient Palace of Facets relief in the storeroom of Rumyantsev museum. In the 1930s shields, painted by the Belousovs from Palekh were removed. Under the shields were remains of hewed relief: on whitestone edges of the column you could distinctly see fancy painting of ancient ornamental composition with stylized dolphins. Terracotta color of the background was preserved. During comparing with original painting on the edges of the column, exposed by the restorators, it became known that they are identical. Obviously because of deformation of white stone and significant loss in XVIII, column was decorated with shields which replicated in alabaster ancient white-stone relief. Restorators suggested that relief decoration be changed to paintings because reliefs were standing out stylistically with their Palekh art style.

In 1967-1968 restoration of the Palace of Facets were made. Project was designed by workshop 7 of Mosproekt design institute by 2 architects D. Kulchinskiy and G. Bykova. During research of the Palace of Facets column restorators came to conclusion that renovation of the column decoration in original material was impossible: white-stone blocks, which bore significant load from arches, had cracks and displacements. To reinforce the column, high-pressure injection of matrix into white-stone laying was made.

Column was enclosed into metal cage; its edges were closed with gypsum shields, which replicated original relief decoration. Relief was gilded.

Meticulous work was done by restorators on recreating unique white-stone doorway in the western wall of the Palace. From original architecture of the Palace of Facets entrance doorway was also preserved, its cap; frame of the entrance was changed during reconstruction of the palace in XIX. Keel shaped arch, which concludes the doorway, was filled with sculpture composition portraying heraldic lions. In its central part lion mask is placed, above it a double-headed eagle. Whole doorway was gilded. Layered

disclosure showed that in old times only carvings without background were gilded. In the frieze of the doorway under the latest gypsum layers restorators found traces of hewed floral ornament and background paint, similar to the background of the central column. This circumstance shows that these parts of the Palace of Facets were constructed simultaneously. After cleaning of the doorway form layers of oil lacquer coatings, it was restored in its original form[29].

During restoration of architectural monument in 196070 big work was done by Kiev special scientific and restoration workshop and by artists of All-Union production scientific and restoration group of enterprises under the Ministry of culture of the USSR. They gilded details, strengthened plaster and paint layers.

In 19921994 restoration and production enterprise Target-tsel (CEO V. I. Suslin, chief engineer A.I. Shipov) rebuilt the Red Porch, deconstructed by I.V.Stalins order in 1930-s.

Enterprise was created in 1990, and its main aim is restoration of white stone carving art of the ancient craftsmen, restoration of architectural and cultural landmarks as close to their original look as possible.

Upon starting restoration of the architectural landmark, restorators studied archive materials, designs, drawings, numerous pictures, preserved in the Museum of architecture named after A.V. Shusev, and also the model of the Palace. All this formed specific picture about the Red Porch and allowed restorators authentically recreate an important part of the architectural landmark in XV century.

During restoration, the Red Porch was constructed in architectural forms of late XV: four staircases were preserved, three platforms showly decorated with white-stone lion sculptures, entrance to the Porch went through two arches, decorated with columns of Doric order, on the front arches double-headed eagles symbols of Russian State are placed.

During 20102012 BaltStroy enterprise (project head manager architect and restorer A. Mikhaylenko, prime contractor federal state unitary enterprise Ateks Federal Guard Service of the Russian Federation), conducted engineering surveys of the Palace of Facets and adjoining areas the Holy Hall, the Crypt, the Basement. Serious roof leakages, partial soaking of the walls during rains and spring snowmelt, wear and tear of engineering communications, bad condition of paintings and numerous other defects were discovered. In short time following works on restoration of the Palace of Facets, the Holy Hall, and the Basement were done: strengthening of foundation and bearing structures; roofing, engineering networks and communications were replaced; drainages were made; ventilation systems were installed in the historical interior arches to avoid wall soaking. Thanks to new engineering communications, specific microclimate is supported indoors. Paintings on the walls were restored. Todays the interior has very little differences from XVII interior. To achieve that, once again Simon Ushakovs descriptions were used. Complex interior restoration was made. Craftsmen restored carpets and parquet by using 16 wood species. During restoration special technology to create mirror parquet effect was used. To restore furniture which wasnt restored since XIX, specialists from Great Britain were contracted.

It was the only county with manufactory which produced rare cloth with gilded threads. This textile was originally used to upholster chairs, armchairs and banquettes in

the hall. For bronze lusters, one ton each, were restored. There were 51 rare exhibits it the Palace, restorators meticulously worked on each one of them[30].

Today, the Moscow Kremlin Palace of Facets is one of the ceremonial halls in the residency of the President of Russian Federation.

Ivan the Great Bell Tower

Dominant position in the architectural ensemble of the Kremlin stands a pillar bell tower, called Ivan the Great. This is sort of a symbol of independence and power of Russian centralized state that threw off the yoke of the Horde and united scattered principalities into a single state. The Grand Duke of Moscow and All Russia, Ivan III decided to build another church with a bell tower, which corresponds with greatness of Moscow, inside of new red brick Kremlin, which already had magnificent Cathedral of the Annunciation and Dormition Cathedral.

In 1505, at the top of the Borovitsky hill, construction of the highest at the time temple in Muscovy, made from brick and white stone had begun. Italian architect Marco Bon (Bon Fryazin) was invited for its construction.

Construction of the bell tower was carried out on the site of the dilapidated white stone Church of Ivan the Ladder, built in 1329, during rein of Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan Danilovich Kalita. In 1505 the church was dismantled and to the east of it Fryazin Bon, in memory of the deceased in the same year Ivan III began to build a new church the bell tower. Construction was completed in 1508 as there is evidence in chronicles: In the same year (1508) the Church of St. Michael the Archangel was completed on the square and John Holy bell tower ... master Aleviz was architect of new church and Bon Fryazin was architect of the bell tower.

The architect built a two-tiered bell tower with the church of St. John of the Ladder in it, which is now the basis of existing pillar. Its height is 60 meters. Church bell tower, built by Bon Fryazin, as well as many other buildings built by Italians in Moscow at the end of XV and beginning of the XVI century, has no direct analogues among both Russian and Italian buildings. The master went beyond local tradition, finding completely new forms of combining church underbell construction. All known round, octagonal churches built after the construction of the Moscow pillar. Researchers believe that the architect was the progenitor of a new type of church building in Russian architecture pillar based underbell church.

Under Tsar Boris Godunov in 1599-1600 Ivan the Great bell tower was layered with additional tiers and received golden dome. Construction was carried out under the supervision of the Russian architect Fyodor Kon. About life of the architect, little is known. Presumably his real name was Fedor Savelievich Ivanov. Outstanding constructor of fortifications. Walls and towers of the White City in Moscow, the mighty walls of Smolensk (15961602 gg.) and lots of churches were built according to his projects. He wore a personal title of Sovereign Master (of Tsar Boris Godunov). The height of the pillar after completion reached 81m.

Ivan the Great an amazing building: built in two stages by different architects. Bell tower preserved its harmony and proportionality. Researchers believe that builders in search of parts in relation to construction adhered to the rules of the golden section, achieving impression of lightness, grace and beauty*.

Today, Ivan the Great Bell Tower is a three-tiered tower of elongated, decreasing upwards octahedrons, one set to another. Each octahedron has a terrace and an open gallery in the arch spans of which bells are placed. Upper octagonal ends with row of corbel arches with shining gilded stars on blue background. Then, cylindrical part of the pillar rises with false windows. Above is a three-tiered inscription made on blue background with gilded letters in Slavonic. Inscription says, By counsel of the Holy Trinity and command of the Great Sovereign Tsar and Grand Duke Boris Fedorovich sole ruler of All Russia and his faithful son prince and sovereign Grand Prince Fyodor Borisovich of All Russia, cathedral is finished and gilded during second summer of the state of theirs 108 (1600 YG)2. The bell tower ends with gilded dome. In diameter the head of Ivan the Great is 9 m., and the surface area of the gold cap is 300 square meters3. Godunovs inscription was covered during first tsar of the Romanov dynasty, Mikhail Fedorovich, and reappeared under Peter the Great. Pillar of the bell tower is built from brick; base and foundation are made from white stone. According to some assumptions, foundation goes deep into the ground and is allegedly located at the bottom of the Moscow River. Wall thickness of the first tier is 5m, second is 2.5 m. Inside pillar, in the wall of the first tier a stone staircase of 83 steps is arranged. In the second tier, it passes into a spiral staircase with 149 steps. In the third tier metal staircase with 97 steps leads along inner wall to the dome. Thus, there are 329 steps of stairs4.

Ivan the Great Bell Tower

  • 1 Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Istoriya Moskvy v pamyatnikakh kultury. M., 2000. P. 62.
  • 2 PSRL. V. 8. M., 1965. P. 249.
  • 3 Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki kultury Moskvy : iz proshlogo v budushchee. M., 2007. P. 34.
  • 4 Entsiklopediya Moskvy. M., 1997. P. 98.

Ivan the Great Bell Tower is surprising not only by architectural achievements, but also by its technology of construction. First tier of the bell tower has metal beams for fastening walls. With this add-in to construction in the XVII century there was no need for additional reinforcing structures.

Monument to the power and glory of the Russian state the bell tower with a height of 81 meters at the same time served as a combat patrol tower. Over the centuries it has dominated Moscow buildings, defining city silhouette.

Ivan the Great ensemble was formed gradually. In 1532 by order of Grand Prince Vasily III Italian architect Petrok Maliy began construction four-tiered bell tower for hanging new bells on the north side of Ivan the Great. In the third tier of belfry was church Voskresenskaya. Churches of the Novgorod-Pskov type served as a model for the architect.

Architect arrived in Russia in 1522. He referred to himself as the architect of the Pope. He was going to work for the Grand Duke for 34 years, but fell in love with a Russian girl, converted to Orthodoxy and married. Belfry was finished 1543 by Russian masters. In 1552 outer staircase was built to the third tier of the belfry. And belfry also received massive drum and dome.

In 1624, stonework apprentice Bazhen Ogurtsov under the instructions of the Patriarch Filaret, the father of the first of the Romanov Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, built on the north side of the Petrok Maliy belfry four-tiered bell tower, completed with tent made of tile roofing and white stone pyramids, the so-called Filaret Annex. Thus, in the Kremlins Cathedral Square was created a complex consisting of three buildings of different times Ivan the Great Bell Tower (15051508), Belfry (15321543) And Filaret Annex (1624). Construction lasted for over a hundred years.

In tier galleries of the complex bells are placed. Bells are remarkable monuments of Russian foundry art from XVI-XIX centuries. All the bells are decorated with ornaments, bas-reliefs and inscriptions, which refer to the history of the bell, date of casting, its weight and its master. Total number of bells 22. Bells placed on the belfry and bell tower itself. They are located on separate lines and many of them have their own names, associated primarily with features of their sound (The Swan, Bear, Howler, and Blagovest). The largest bell Assumption (also called Festive Bell or Tsar Bell) was cast in the XIX century by masters Zavyalov and Rusinov. This bell with weight of 65 tn 320 kg was considered the best Russian bell by its sound and its tone. Bell Reut (another name Howler), casted by famous master Andrey Chokhov in 1622 by decree of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, weighs 32 tn 760 kg. The oldest bell of the Ivan the Great bell tower was casted by Ivan Alekseevich in 1501, its name is The Bear and it weighs 7 tn 223 kg. The range of bell sounds is divided into three registers blagovestny (bass) bells, red (sounding in the range of the human voice) and treble (rings). With right bell ringing, harmonious accord of all three registers was formed, which was called trezvon (hence the saying ringing all the bells)[31].

The ideological and artistic value of the tallest building in Moscow in those years is expressed in the inscription on the top beam of the bell tower cross: King of Glory.

With the completion of Ivan the Great complex in the XVII century, many years of work on restructuring of the Kremlin center were finished. This magnificent building combines all the cathedrals of the Kremlin in a single architectural ensemble, closes east of the Cathedral Square, separating it from adjacent Ivanovskaya square.

In 1812, during the French retreat from Moscow, by order of Napoleon complex explosives were laid under Ivan the Great bell tower. The pillar survived explosion,

Belfry and the Filaret Annex received minor damage. They were almost completely destroyed and rebuilt again seven years after the end of Patriotic war in 1819. Architect D.I. Gilardi carried out restoration under I. Egotov and L. Rust project. Retaining basic division and form of ancient buildings, authors introduced new elements of classical architecture, order architecture and false Gothic architecture (window frames, portals, numerous details) to the new buildings[32]. In this form Ivan the Great Bell Tower stood up to the end of the XIX century.

In 18951896, under direction of architect restorer S.V. Rodionov its comprehensive restoration had been carried out. Base of the foundation of the church was reinforced during the works; many lost parts of white stone decor were restored in line with the spirit of the epoch of the XVI century, whitewashing buildings was carried out.

In 1913, during excavation works at the Cathedral Square, fragments of white stone walls and foundation were discovered. Finding got attention of architecture historian P.P. Pokryshkin. He assumed that this was the remains of buildings of a later period before square was developed. During 30-es of the twentieth century historian of ancient architecture, architect-restorer V. Kavelmaher proved that elements of the first stone church of St. John of the Ladder built in 1329 were found in 1913. Cathedral of Ivan Kalita was between Assumption and Archangel Cathedral, and after the new construction could not match their scale. Italian architect Bon Fryazin set a new bell tower in about one axis with the previous church, but took it over the line of apses of the Assumption and Archangel Cathedral. The result was an area, the axis of which passes through the middle of the main throne hall of the Chamber of Facets and through the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, which brought to the Kremlin center an idea of regularity and centricity, which was an important step in the formation of its shape.

Kremlin was seriously damaged during its shelling in November 1917 when Moscow was in the middle of a conflict between the revolutionary forces led by the Bolsheviks and their opponents. Later there was a question of immediate early recovery. Specialists of the Moscow palace architects management department N.V. Markovnikov and LI. Dyumulenov made inspection certificates of damaged buildings and prepared cost estimates for the initial work.

In March 1918, Soviet government moved to Moscow, which led to speeding up reconstruction works. It was found that the bell tower barely suffered from the shelling, but there was a hole in the pillar of the Ivan the Great, corners with white stone processing, and pilasters in the Filaret Annex under a tent and large drum head and near the patriarchal sacristy portal were damaged.

Restoration work involved Museum Department of the Peoples Commissariat of Education and special committee on the restoration of the Kremlin. Experienced architects, members of the Moscow Architectural Society AV. Rylskiy and A. A. Latkov were in charge of works. During the restoration works, interesting discoveries were made: two white stone staircases were found in Ivan the Great pillar. They were laid after the 1812 war during the restoration of extension that connects the pillar with a belfry. White stone spiral staircase from the first chime tier to the entrance of the St. John of the Ladder Cathedral was also opened. It was backfilled with waste. After inspection of the findings by architects A. Shchusev, I.P. Mashkov and N.V. Markovnikov decision was

made to restore the ancient staircase; to disassemble an extension between Ivanovo pillar and belfry. This work continued for over three years, from 1919 to 1923. The result was dismantled extension; eaves fixed and covered with iron rails; sealed doorways, and other restoration works.

Scientific restoration of the Ivan the Great bell tower was held in 19681979 by specialized design and restoration workshop under the Main Planning Authority in Moscow. During development of the restoration project architect A. Ilyenkov, engineers I. Freymark and V. Yavorsky studied the chronicles, documents, iconographic and other materials, conducted a series of research to learn as much as possible about the history of construction. As a result, borders of upper tier superstructure (Godunov time) were refined, new data on the color palette of the pillar was gathered. Originally, bell tower was painted in two colors red and white. On one of the faces of the second tier, a fragment of such coat has been reproduced.

At the base of the pillar shafts were laid, which revealed a number of interesting data. Until now, it was thought that the pillar height of 81m must have a deep foundation. Scientists dispelled this myth. It turned out that the bell tower stands on a step-white-stone foundation, submerged only 6m from the current level of the surface. Foundation lies on the pile foundation of octagonal shape with a diameter of 25 m. By conclusion of the wood preservation laboratory, piles (their height does not exceed one and a half meters with a width of 25 cm) had not lost their bearing capacity and fully ensure the stability of the ancient buildings. The strength of the foundation can be attributed to the skill of its builders. Studies have shown that there are reinforcing metal piles mounted inside of stone base, and mortar for a laying of the foundation had egg yolk.

It was found that the bell tower interiors went through a number of losses: in the first tier of the St. John of the Ladder Cathedral a carved white stone ledge at the base of the arch was cut down at the end of the XVIII century; white stone socket was lost. Its restoration was carried out based on the model of preserved socket in the second floor arch of the castle. Restorers restored in its original dimensions window and door openings of the first and third floors of the lower tier. White stone wisps of upper tier had been gilded again since original gilding was lost in XVII.

As a result, of the second half of the XX century works on the grand ensemble of Ivan the Great Bell Tower, its original architectural appearance was returned.

By the 500th anniversary of Ivan the Great Bell Tower large-scale restoration works were conducted. They were carried out in 20052008 by project developed by Restavrator M under the direction of architect E. V. Stepanova, and an engineer technologist AV. Gustova. They conducted historical and archival, full-scale, architectural, engineering and design and process studies. Architects restorers analyzed the state of the building materials, revealed delamination of the individual layers of plaster; extensive destruction of white stone at the eaves and internal stairs, which required replacement of a large number of units; both on the facade and in the interiors, there were observed weathering effects; exfoliation and mechanical damage to the front brick surface. Due to the corrosion of the metal, spiral staircase leading to the head drum required complete replacement. Site covering in the first bell tier and metal cornice covering were in poor condition. Gilding of the heading and commemorative inscriptions on the drum were heavily worn out. At the saddle of the heading gilding was completely lost; the rest of gilding had deep scratches from the claws of birds'. Production Enterprise Target-tsel (CEO Suslin V.I., Chief Engineer Shishov A.I.) was involved in restoration works.

Uniqueness and complexity of the restoration work was that the bell tower was prepared for the use of it as a museum with a unique exhibition, which is to unfold on three floors of the first tier. Interior of the bell tower will get sophisticated lighting design.

With a significant amount of restoration works of Ivan the Great Bell Tower, principle of the maximum preservation of the monument to the authenticity, plastics of walls, white stone details, was consistently carried out. Through the efforts of restorers elements of an order interior decoration were disclosed, that were cut down during redesign of arches in some rooms. White stone imposts, sockets in arches, and cornices are identified and ready to be exhibited. Restoration of the walls, freed from the later plaster, allowed to reveal the technique of brick and white stone laying used by ancient masonry masters. Inside the Church of Ivan the Ladder under the latest white stone slabs brick floor of the XVIII century was discovered. (More ancient pavement floor was not found). The restorers restored floor with bricks made from samples they found. New floor included authentic pieces of the old floor. The same method has been applied at the restoration of the floor in the tents over the church. Here the main hall was paved with square bricks, window edges were laid with bricks, put to the edge, tents with bricks on the plate. During restoration these differences in the floor were preserved. In the production of works restorers were guided by the principle of fragmented restoration which aims to maximize preservation of the original. The blocks of which supporting pillars and steps are composed, were conservated and strengthened. Only minor destroyed fragments were completely replaced. The same method was used in the restoration of white stone order details.

This fragmentary restoration allows you to read the story of construction of the monument. For example, late doorway has been preserved, hewn out of the tent over the church (the second floor of the lower octagon) to enter the spiral staircase. Torn bricklaying was reinforced, which indicates later origin of doorway. Restoration of the bell tower was essentially completed in March 2006. By this time, facades have been restored, including gilt of the head, cross and belt, with a commemorative plaque on the drum; interior white stone staircase were restored; interiors of all tiers were restored with identification and fragmentary recovery of partially preserved decorative architectural details. All windows and doors were replaced; they were made on the models of historical originals. Utilities in the interiors of the bell tower were laid in 2007. They were placed in a special box, padded along the inner wall of the main staircase. In 2008, work on museification of the bell tower interiors, had begun. Three floors of the first tier present a centuries-old history of Moscow Kremlin architectural ensemble formation: exposition, located on the ground floor, is about the Kremlin in XIVXV centuries, on the second about the Kremlins history in XVIXVII centuries, on the third floor exposition is about XVI11-X1X centuries. To illuminate the bell tower and belfry, electrical cables have been laid in deep seams in bricklaying of the walls. The building was equipped with modern utilities it was the most complex engineering work on the historic monument. They were carried out without compromising visual perception of an architectural monument.

Works on the bell tower were carried out by museum restoration methods. Masters of specialized enterprise Target-tsel made complete refurbishment and adaptation of the old buildings to museum use, prepared facades and interiors of the Church bell tower of Ivan the Great, unique monument of Russian architecture, for museum display.

International company Philips Lighting has been invited to work on lighting of Ivan the Great Bell Tower. The Engineers of the company designed innovative lighting project.


Impost various kinds of ornaments, cornices and protruding molded grooves on smooth walls with no windows.

As a result of the work done, general lighting of the architectural object, and lighting of individual items was done. Center of the second level features a modern projector showing a panoramic image with audio-visual accompaniment to the domed vault space.

Philips specialists for installation of a complex system of lighting equipment tried to avoid distortion of the bell tower and belfry appearance. Through the use of special types of lamps, relief structures become clearer, and dome plays with bright golden lights.

All restoration work took place under the supervision and direct participation of the Moscow Kremlin museum complex administration: Director General of museums E.J. Gagarina, chief architect A.V. Batalov, deputy director general A.K. Levykina Architects restorers, specialists of Target-target, builders of the XXI century for many decades preserved for their contemporaries and descendants one of the oldest monuments of Russian history and architecture.

In early 2009, a unique monument of ancient architecture Ivan the Great bell tower finished construction of an exposition with an audiovisual support system and opened a museum.

Today, Ivan the Great Bell Tower, is a symbol of our country, a modern museum that uses multimedia technology, making it is possible to imagine the appearance of the Moscow Kremlin from centuries past.

In the XVIII century, during the age of enlightened absolutism under Catherine the Great development and expansion of the territory of Moscow is continued. To date Russia is successfully developing classicism architecture. (Monuments of Russian classicism in Moscow will be discussed in the second chapter of the monograph).

Teremnoy Palace

XVII century in architecture is rightly called the heyday of the Moscow Baroque a kind of architectural style that has adapted to the stone construction techniques and solutions typical of ancient wooden architecture. Among the extant monuments of the Kremlin this period is the Teremnoy Palace.

The story of the creation of the Teremnoy Palace is associated with the name of the Russian Tsar, founder of the Romanov dynasty, Mikhail Fedorovich (1613-1645 period of government of state). In 163536 by his decree, the heirs to the throne were erected wonderfully chamber, later named the Teremnoy Palace. This building in the XVII century was the admiration of the citizens of Moscow. Later the Palace became a part of the Grand Kremlin Palace. It was built by a group of Russian master builders: Bazhen Ogurtsov, Anitin Konstantinov, Trefil Sharutin and Laria Ushakov. Masters painted the roof silver and gold. Teremnoy Palace was the residential part of the architectural complex associated with the open knights official site with the main room the Hall of Facets.

Palace was built on the ancient basis of the previous apartment complex; the mansion was placed with a space from the exterior walls of the previous building, and the second and third floors tiers repeating this stepwise principle. The stepped architecture of the floors has allowed to surround them with the wide open terraces is the promenade. Divided by blades facades of the upper floors have a clear system large double-window with drop ornament, framed by a picturesque architraves with carved pattern.

Two tiers of tiled eaves, and the golden roof, give the Palace elegant, fabulous look. The building is richly decorated with stone carvings, many of the decorations elements which repeat the techniques of ancient wooden architecture.


RIANovosti. 18.05.2008.

Teremnoy Palace of Moscow Kremlin

The rooms of the Palace are traditional. The basement was intended for various household needs, the second tier was occupied by the workshops of the chamber, serving the Royal yard. On the third floor were office space and a bath with a spiral staircase located under the bedroom of the king. On the fourth floor privet quarters and the kings privet office. Painting of the kings privet office is designed in golden-red tones on the walls are depicted the emblems of Russia. The middle window of this room is called petitions. And some of it is down in the yard down in the box is intended for collecting petitions letters to the king. Fifth floor called golden-domed teremok surrounded by an outdoor terrace was built in 1737 for the princes Alexey and Ivan. On the Western side it is adjoined by a round tower, which opened a gorgeous view of the entire Kremlin.

The Royal privet quarters were in the porch and the staircase, richly decorated with gilding and painting. On the grounds of the stairs leading to the Golden porch were decorative white stone lions and other strange beasts. The stairs from the platform separates the gold grating. During the construction of the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Golden porch; Golden treillage are inside the building[33].

The original interior of the Palace barely survived and was reproduced under the supervision of artist F.G. Solntsev in the style of the XVII century during the restoration of this ancient monument in 183637.

The extraordinary beauty and elegance of the new Palace is created not only due to complex space-planning decisions buildings, but also because of the rich decoration of its facades. Many of the details of this decoration were restored in 196669. In general, the Teremnoy Palace gives the impression of precious jewellery. It is a unique monument

of Russian history and culture of XVII century. Its architecture influenced the overall composition, the unique identity of appearance of the Grand Kremlin.

Currently, the Teremnoy Palace in the Grand Kremlin Palace is the Residence of the President of the Russian Federation.


The XVIII century in the history of Russian culture is associated with the development of neoclassical architecture. In the second half of the century domestic architecture develops under the sign of classicism. Outstanding architects of that time were V.I. Bazhenov and M.F. Kazakov, their whole creative life is directly connected with Moscow. M.F. Kazakov was an architect and urban planner, he thought the city as the center of civic life, built up entire neighborhoods of Moscow, highlighting the streets, creating complete architectural ensembles. Its buildings became the central point of separate districts of the capital that predetermined their further development. The largest and most outstanding construction of the architect is the Senate building in the Moscow Kremlin.

The Senate building (government offices) was built in the second half of the XVIII century on the territory of the Moscow Kremlin by the talented Russian architect Matvei Fedorovich Kazakov.

Construction lasted from the years 1776 to 1787. This was the first major building in the Kremlin, built in the classical style. Its architect M.F. Kazakov worked most of his life in Moscow, the Moscow regions towns and estates. The work of the architect is characterized by a humanistic architectural image, organic connection with nature and the heritage of the world classical architecture.

In 1763 Empress Catherine II spent reform of the Senate, the main government body. To improve performance it was divided into six departments, four of which were in St. Petersburg, two in Moscow: in the cases of administrative and judicial[34]. For the Moscow departments of the Senate had a building worthy of its high status. To that end, the last private owners in the Kremlin princes Trubetskoy were bought the land for construction. The plot was situated between the Arsenal, the Monastery the Miracle and Resurrection monasteries, was small and had a very complex outline. To insert the outline of the building to through traditional approaches, optimally using all the territory was difficult.

The architectural idea of M.F. Kazakov was brilliant in its outward simplicity. The Senate is constituted in terms of shape almost in a right triangle, one leg of which is parallel to the Kremlin wall, facing Red Square. This form was inspired by the plot on which the building is located. Space-planning scheme is a very characteristic for early classicism. The front yard is located inside and is closed on all sides by three-storey buildings. The architect used a new type of layout of interiors for administrative and public buildings with convenient layout of the premises and rational solution of their relationship. In depth, at the apex of the triangle, is a large round hall, with associated stairs located below it at ground floor lobby. Sorounding the front room along with the small round room and two adjoining rectangular galleries form a major node of the front interiors. Two internal corps delimits the Central courtyard from the corner office. The main body of the longitudinal main wall is divided into working areas and

Senate building in the Moscow Kremlin

corridors. The office is separated by partitions that can be moved as needed. Through out there are staircases that form at the same time reference point of the composition plan. In appearance in accordance with the tectonics of classicism lower floors were interpreted as a combined pedestal top floors[35]. The centres of the facades are marked with columns, the rotunda and the courtyard is curved in an arc of a Doric colonnade. The first facade, ground floor and basement treated with rust, and the upper two stories about the blades. The ledges are reinforced by the Roman-Doric pilasters and the front window frames. All the white stone building is topped by a cornice with powerful brackets. A four-columned ionic portico of the courtyard entrance from the square and a small dome over it softens the rigor of the architecture of the facade, set its center, and gives the scale of a long building. The rest of the facades are like the first, without entrances and porticos.

The angles in the three-story building plan were decorated with corbels in the form of a triumphal arch with pilasters of the Doric order.

The compositional center of the building is a rotunda with Catherine hall and it is named in honor of the Empress, and its diameter is 24.7 metre in height by 7metres, crowned by a miracle of architecture the huge coffered dome. It was only for its time, a one-volume stone dome, giving the room a touch of Majesty. According to the architects. Hall is so harmonious in size and shape that it can fit a perfect sphere. In the base of the dome were located 24 light windows. Towering above the Kremlin wall, he immediately focused in the middle between the Nikolskaya and Spasskaya towers.

According to the memoirs of contemporaries, a colleague of M.F. Kazakov expressed their concerns about the reliability of the giant dome of the Senate. It is said that during dismantling of the timber frame construction of the rotunda, M.F. Kazakov climbed to the top and stayed there for a long period of time, demonstrating to all

present the strength of its structure. An award for his courage and talent were the applause of the witnesses and came soon after the award of the Empress Catherine II[36].

On the dome of the Catherine hall was placed the sculpture of St. George with the inscription on the pedestal Le saint place au dessus du Senat.

The Front entrance hall is decorated with six-columned portico. M.E Kazakov has created a magnificent interior of the hall. It is surrounded by 24 Corinthian columns. The dome is decorated with coffers and stucco rosettes, the thickness of the arch in the upper part equal to only one brick. At the base of the dome to the piers placed waist bas-relief portraits of Russian princes and tsars a total of forty-eight medallions, starting from the first Russian princes and tsars, including the Empress Catherine II. They are copies of bas-reliefs that adorn the walls of the Armoury chamber of the Kremlin, made in the years 1774-1775 by sculptor F.I. Shubin.

The space above the arches of the doorways of the hall was filled with decorative cartouches with historical coats of arms of cities of the Moscow province.

Eighteen of stucco reliefs around the room, placed on the wall in a frieze between the columns glorify the liberal beginnings of the first years of the reign of Catherine 11; the work of the sculptor G.T. Zamaraev on sketches by M.F. Kazakov. All the reliefs as Minerva depicts Catherine II (Minerva Roman goddess of wisdom) in allegorical form, they reflect the activity state of the Empress, glorify the law, justice, enlightenment the ideals of the progressive people of that time. The reliefs are on the base circle of the dome of the hall, in chronological order, describing all the main acts of Catherine II. The main idea of each of the sculptures is expressed very clearly and concisely. They amaze with extraordinary liveliness and expression of the figures. All this makes the sculptural decoration of the Catherine Hall a brilliant monument of Russian architectural art of the interior. M.F. Kazakov made drawings of the Senate building; he also owns the stories and drawings of the reliefs. The rest of the stucco decoration of the hall is decorated by the sculptors G.T. Zamaraev and I.A. Yust and etc.

For the Russian secular architecture of the XVIII century the construction of the Senate was a new stage in forming this type of large public buildings. Many provincial cities of Russia took it as a model for the construction of buildings of government offices.

The building of the Senate for more than 200 years of history was subjected to various tests. In the Patriotic war of 1812 Catherine Hall was damaged by the explosion with its dome, the French removed a sculpture of St. George and drove away.

With 1813 hall used as a warehouse, from 1819 to 1855, it housed the archive and the case of the Department of the War Ministry.

In the hall lay wooden flooring, on top of which is placed the racks. Almost to the base of the dome the hall was lined with shelves, and attaching them were shot down some of the details of the reliefs.

In the period from 1819 to 1855 the Grand Entrance Hall of the Catherine, given to the archive of the Inspection Department of the Ministry of war, came in very poor condition. This is evidenced by a certificate of inspection carried out on 2 October 1865, architects and painters in the presence of a special Committee was established

to monitor the reconstruction of the Moscow Senate, with the aim of placing the Department of the new judicial institutions[37].

In 1850-s for the convenience of the military archive was designed and built a special spiral staircase in the center of the hall, which reached to the cornice under the dome, the hall itself was redesigned, it was a split wooden blind wall. All of this caused significant damage to the room: the decor was hurt, lost fragments of stucco, weakened structures.

In 1856 Catherine hall was transferred to the Ministry of justice. On behalf of Ministry Catherine hall has been restored, they were headed by academician of architecture K.S. Afanasiev. His project decreasing from the base of the dome to the top of the caissons of stucco gold-plated sockets were replaced with brass reinforced construction, restored moldings and decor of the hall, renovated the facade of the Senate. Until the revolution the Catherine hall served as a General reception to the public, who appeared in judicial institutions.

In March of 1918 the Soviet government moved from Petrograd to Moscow. The Council of peoples Commissars headed by VI. Lenin took over the Senate building, heavily damaged from the bombardment of the Kremlin in November 1917: the roof was leaking, dilapidated upholstery, and not functioned in a dutch oven. Here upon the orders of Lenin was made cosmetic repairs. His study and the apartment were on the third floor of the building. In the first years after the revolution, in Catherine hall housed the club for the workers of the Kremlin, held party conventions. In 1919 Catherine hall was renamed to Sverdlovskiy.

In the middle of 30-s of XX century, Stalin moved to the senate. Here it was renovated: walls were paneled with oak paneling taller than a man; the white doors were replaced with oak parquet, recruited from different kinds of valuable wood, replaced by a standard parquet herringbone; crystal chandeliers bronze.

Partial renovation was carried out in the building in the 19501960-s.

In 1961 according to the project of architects V. Libson, I. Ruben, G. Slodskoy carried out major restoration of the Catherine Hall. It was preceded by an engineering study, study of archival documents, photographs, carried out trial cleaning of the walls of the hall painted in white colour. The restorers knew what importance was attached to M.F. Kazakov color in architecture. Trial cleaning found in several places under multiple whitewash the deep blue color, is the background of white stucco decoration. The presence of the original blue background color of confirmed documents for the purchase for coloring paint hall Saxon cabbage. On a brass outlet under the whitewash, the restorers saw the traces of gilding in the recesses finish faux marble.

During the restoration work, the architects managed to recreate the Catherine Hall close to his original appearance: fortified with all the design hall decor is given in accordance with the plan of M.E Kazakov. It was built on the combination of blue and white tones of the walls and dome with gilt rosettes; made up for the loss in the stucco decoration. Round (Catherine) Hall was returned to its original colour.

The oval hall was subjected to numerous alterations, domed part of the separated beams, a significant part of the decoration of the dome is lost. The author of the restoration project I.Ruben, on the basis of surviving fragments of sculptural ornament, were able to restore its composition. Completely lost were two fragments, they were renewed on the basis of a counterpart an ancient emblem of Moscow with the image of St. George

By engineering surveys have been discovered the traces of the initial locations and sizes of pilasters without capitals and a cornice. Entry doors to the hall and other details of decor were restored according to the drawings of M.E Kazakov.

The hall was illuminated by three chandeliers, their traces: sockets and brackets were revealed in the central part of the hall. After a long search, stylistically close to the architecture of the Oval hall were chandeliers of the Tauride Palace in Leningrad. They were filmed copies. Under the plaster, the restorers found the original decoration of the walls and dome of the hall. In accordance with him, they were painted in soft colours (pistachio color) which clearly stands out white stucco. Thus, in 1962, was restored architectural appearance and partly original interior Oval hall of the Senate1.

In the early 1970-s on the third floor in the Northern part of the Senate building was an equipped residence for the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev. In his office everything was like when Stalin was where[38].

In 1991 the Senate building became the official residence of the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin. On his initiative, began the most large-scale reconstruction of the Palace and the meticulous restoration of its external and internal appearance.

Preparatory work work began: conducted engineering survey of the building, the analysis of the status of communication, power systems and communications. The project of reconstruction and restoration of the facility was designed by architects B.V. Palui, P.N. Lavrenov, N.G. Mukhin (Mosproekt 2), restoration was carried out by the company Resma (Director A.S. Goryachev) with the active participation of foreign firms.

The basic works on reconstruction of the Senate building were carried out by ZAO Mospromstroy (General Director W. Moroz).

Catherine hall

1 Svyatitskaya E. For the sake of the glorification of the Russian state // Moscow heritage. 2014. 3(33). P. 35

Engineering networks (heating, heat supply, domestic water supply and Sewerage systems, dust cleaning of Central air conditioning systems, etc.) were performed by the firm Sakta, ZAO Mospromstroy (General Director V.D. Eisenberg). Works on electric power supply, automation of utility networks were performed by the firm Elektrofaks (chief engineer N.I. Kulikov). The device low voltage networks, automation systems and dispatching control were carried out by Terminal[39].

Restoration works of facades and interiors of buildings of the Senate held scientific-production company Resma, founded in 1991 on the basis of the All- Union Association Soyuzrestavratsia.

The complexity of works on restoration of the facades included the reconstruction of the copper roof of the dome cover with the replacement sheathing of the Round Hall; the rebuilding and restoration of stucco gypsum decoration on the facades of the building and decoration of natural stone.

The Senate building is one of the first objects on which the firm Resma finishing work was carried out on plaster with her impregnation, puttying, priming and application of paint layers. This method significantly improved the quality and increases the durability of finished work.

The facade, commissioned in 1995 after the restoration, using modern materials, up to the present time requires no restoration, no repaints and is in good condition.

The building also held a unique multidisciplinary work on the restoration of the stucco decoration made gilding, polychrome painting, decorative elements, and recreated light fixtures. All finishing elements (carved wood items, moldings, molding, etc.) were made in a special masterful. The work to attract the most skilled craftsmen from Moscow and St. Petersburg artists paintings of owning the techniques of old masters, furniture and lamps created in European workshops.

Carried out restoration of the railings of non-ferrous metal Bazhenov stairs, restored the interiors of the round and oval halls with a recreation of the gilded coats of emblem of Russia. According to the drawings developed by the specialists of the company made of openwork cast from black metal porch installed at the main entrances of the building.

Challenging was the restoration of the Catherine Hall. It started with the fact that the specialists of the company Resma was sketching drawings and architectural drawings, allowing them to mentally go through the entire architectural, construction and technical chain, allowing to represent typical kazakovsky era methods.

Everywhere restorers removed in later strata, to reach the original intent of the author. Beneath the layers of plaster were discovered fragments of a colorful wall design kazakovskaya time, the ancient white relief decorations. When the restorers removed the flooring in Catherine hall, they opened a mosaic floor laid in it the date of construction of the building.

After the restoration of the Catherine hall got its original historical appearance. It was fully restored in the form in which it was conceived and created by M.F. Kazakov. Today it is decorated with not only cleared and recreated by restorers and bas-relief sculptural decoration kazakovskaya time, but also with two sculptures of a contemporary composer the national artist of Russia A.A. Buchukova: bronze sculpture Russia and Justice symbolizes the new democratic Russia.

Over the dome of the Catherine hall, developed the standard of the President of the Russian Federation the largest of all standard size of 2.5x2.5 meters. Bronze sculpture

of St. George mounted over the dome of the Oval hall, where once identified her by M.F. Kazakov[40]. Monument to the last detail recreated from sketches by M. F. Kazakov, sculptors, father and son V.E. and A.V. Zygal.

The only architectural novelty, which appeared after the restoration of the Kremlin residence of the President of Russia, are the winter gardens, built in the small triangular internal courtyards of the Senate. However, lush is growing there, strange trees, shrubs, roses and gladioli of colored glass. These are all works of contemporary artists, glass blowers TP. Sazhin and L.F. Fomina.

In 19921996 the kazakovskaya Senate building was finally reconstructed under the residence of the President of the Russian Federation, and Catherine Hall became the venue for official and public ceremonies, awards and prizes, the organization of official meetings at the highest level.

Grand Kremlin Palace

The XIX century in the history of Russia is rightly called t he Golden age of Russian culture. The first half of the century is directly connected with the further development of classicism in architecture. One of the famous architects of this period is K. A. Ton, who built the Kremlins two magnificent buildings: the Grand Kremlin Palace and the Kremlin Armory.

The name of Palace the Grand Kremlin Palace was fixed in the middle of XIX century for grandiose building, which was constructed by the project of the architect K.A. Ton. The construction was carried out on a former Kremlin Grand and Royal residences. On the Borovitsky Hill has consistently built a wooden mansion of Prince Ivan Kalita (in the first third of the XIV century), Golden palace, patronal and river walk chamber of Dmitry Donskoy; the Palace of Ivan III, and tunable on several occasions during the reign of Ivan the terrible, Boris Godunov and the first of Romanovs. The construction of the Terem Palace for Mikhail Romanov in 16351636 was part of a larger construction program, which was implemented in the Kremlin until the end of the XVII century.

In 17491753 on the place of some old buildings which was billed by Bartolomeo Rastrelli was built a new stone Winter Palace in the Kremlin for Empress Elizabeth Petrovna. However, in 17671773 V. 1. Bazhenov developed the project of a new Palace which was to be located on the slope of the Kremlin Hill. A huge four-storey building with a facade and with a length of 630 m with spacious terraces, stairs and ramps had to climb over the Moscow River. The implementation of this plan involves the demolition of the southern wall of the Kremlin, as well as parts of its ancient buildings. The project was not implemented and further updates to the Rastrelli Palace survived to the 1830s, In the course of the outbreak in 1836 major restoration work, which was led by Professor of architecture F.F. Richter, most of the Palace buildings were considered not to meet the needs of the Imperial court. The changed socio-political conditions, new ideas of beauty and comfort and the desire of Nicholas I, demonstrate the historical continuity of their power necessitated the development of a new project of the Kremlin Palace.

Grand Kremlin Palace

InthestrictsenseoftheGrand Kremlin Palacecannotfullybeconsideredacopyrighted work of K.A. Ton. In 1837 Nickolay I gave the task of designing the new Palace project and, by January, 1838, his executed architectural assistant P.A. Gerasimov. Obviously influenced by the advice of K.A. Ton, the Emperor decided on a radical increase in the scale of the reconstruction. As a result on 5 Mar 1838 it adopted a new promising project, which included all the main elements of the future complex. From this point the chief architect of the construction was assigned to K.A. Ton with detailed the work and by November he had completed the final draft of the new Palace.

The work of K.A. Ton over the largest government order came at a crucial period in the history of domestic architecture. The resistance values of classical architecture were largely determined by the fact that it was developed on the basis of traditional artistic norms and canons. The act of creation included the implementation of the rules, the system which, preserving the unity varied depending on the specific task of development of world outlook and social attitudes. The mobility values of the classical architectural order are very high. For example, in nineteenth-century Russia the monarchist-minded part of the society bound order of expression of the ideas of absolutism. Educational customized layer of the Russian nobility seen in the architecture of classicism, the language of eternal moral standards, citizenship and human dignity.

The rise of patriotic spirits in Russian society due to the victory over Napoleon continued in subsequent decades. In architectural practice this rise brought about two effects. On the one hand, it was considered that the most adequate way the scale of the victory in the Napoleonic wars reflect buildings and structures, executed in the Empire style. Deliberately released in the existing urban landscape, decorated with brand new decorative elements armature, such constructions actually were able to stress all the pathos of military triumphs. In addition, characteristics of this embodiment of late classicism: the scale of the objects, the stark simplicity of their decor strict symmetry and compositional decisions in the public consciousness firmly and inextricably associated with the characteristics of the Imperial state. So, the up scaling of state-owned buildings, their dominance in the current urban environment was identified with the Imperial power and symmetry with the rationality and orderliness of the Imperial government, resting on the immutable laws.

On the other hand, the rise of Patriotic sentiment resulted in the growth of interest in its own national cultural heritage. It appears there was a conscious need to develop new architectural forms based on national artistic traditions. Classicism in any of its varieties did not allow to fully identify the characteristics of national cultures. Hence the appeal to so-called historical styles, including the Russian-Byzantine style of K.A. Ton.

For Russia of the epoch of Nicholas I it was characterized with certain reticence development, which actively influenced the national idea in its public understanding. In post classical development, it strengthened the desire to find the antithesis of the abstract normativity of architecture, indifferent to the nature and culture of the country. Thus there is a transition to a particular peoples search began, nation, the idea of which was associated with the architecture of the pre-Petrine time. However, the Russian architectural heritage was still very poorly studied, and its study was very superficial. Despite this, the so-called Russian-Byzantine style is a very extensive place in the eclecticism, forcing her options into the international character (Gothic, Romanesque, etc.).

For K.A. Ton, as well as his assistants F.F. Richter, N.I. Chichagov, P.A. Gerasimov, I.S. Kaminsky, the task was to combine into one new building and the preserved ancient Palace buildings: the Golden Tsaritsyn and the faceted chamber, Palace and Palace Church. This task led to a compositional solution of the new complex in the form of a system arranged in a rectangle of buildings covering the courtyard. The main building, erected on a hill, the facade facing Zamoskvorechye. From the North the rectangle closes the Terem Palace; the East the Golden tsarina and the faceted chamber, and the West the case of the ceremonial and the personal chambers of the Imperial wing and the Grand Dukes. Final architectural complex of the Palace was formed in 1838 and 1849, when it was built under the guidance of K.A. Ton in a monumental building facing the Moscow River.

The building is raised on a high stylobate, adorned with an arcade. The flat roof of stylobate long side of the main facade and the East side is a terrace for the suite of ceremonial halls, placed in a double-height second floor. The facade is divided into two tiers of pilasters, with Windows between them, framed by snow-white carved frames with an ornament in the Russian-Byzantine style. The central part of the Palace is crowned with an attic, decorated with kokoshniks keeled and curved roof with a flagpole. The Palace interiors are distinguished by solemnity.

This approach has transformed the Palace into a complex of different buildings that conformed to the traditions of old Russian architecture. The new facility took a characteristic feature of the ancient palaces of the sovereign, the former conglomerate picturesque, quaint-a variety of buildings of different eras. The perception of the traditions of old Russian architecture was not limited to only one layout. The identity of the composite reception is manifested in a picturesque asymmetry. Thus, the side of the hull is substantially below the main. A wing of the Grand Dukes and the case of the Armory are located separately as are usually staged rooms of the members of the Royal family. Arched (hanging) the transition is reminiscent of the covered arcade of the ancient Palace, the motif of arches arcade of the Palace of Ivan III. Curly roof of the main building, its silhouette evokes obvious associations with the barrels, the attic innovative features and smotritelniy turrets of ancient buildings.

The main facade of the Palace is accented with a terrace (similar terem ambulatories) has window openings with white-stone plat bands, decorated with carvingand traditionally


Libson V.Ya. Revived treasures of Moscow. M., 1983. P. 49.

loose weight. All of these means of expression as conceived by K.A. Ton contributed to the solution of the problem of artistic unity long-standing Kremlin ensemble and the new Palace. At the same time appeal to the elements of ancient architecture was not just a question of the professional and artistic tact Builder. To a large extent it was due to the official ideology.

The ideological basis prescribed in Russian-Byzantine style was the glorification of autocracy and Orthodoxy as the forms, eternally inherent in the Russian nation. The imitation of Byzantine and incomparison with the ancient samples often gave rise to a unilateral approach, when taken into consideration only the decorative side of architecture. K.A. Ton was erected quite modern in its design, the building adapted to the demands of his time, with the use of new building materials. So, he boldly applied the metal ceiling, iron rafters, created a false ceiling in the largest St Georges hall, installed hollow zinc columns, and using a concrete and cast iron for the flooring. Traditional furnace heating was replaced with air heater and the air heating system by General engineer N. I. Amosova. Thus, the builders of the Palace implemented in the construction of the most progressive for its time engineering and building construction and materials, but got up in his construction of the decorative forms of past styles.

Created in the 18381849 the Grand Kremlin Palace with its size and luxury finishes surpassed all contemporary European Palace buildings.

In the Kremlin complex of K. A. Ton were conceived three fragments differing in methods of work undertaken.

The first fragment consisted of buildings and structures subject to restoration. To them was ascribed the preserved North-Eastern part of the complex of ancient buildings (the Terem churches, the Palace of facets, Terem Palace, the Annunciation Cathedral, the Church of deposition of the robe, and even of the Patriarchal courtyard and Church of the Twelve Apostles).

The second fragment included the area of indigenous reconstructions. The creation of the Vladimir hall in the open part of the Boyar platform has greatly changed the existing spatial composition. They were removed from the porch of St. Basils Cathedral and the gallery, updated the dilapidated structure. In the spring of 1839 M.I. Chichagov and V.A. Bakarev convinced Ton of the need to disassemble the walls of the basement and bring the Foundation from a solid base, since the Palace would not be rebuilt, but a new and absolutely durable one1.

The third fragment is entirely assumed the new construction of the South building with Andrews hall and chambers of the Emperor and also Empress and the associated Apartments and the Armory.

In fact, around the old Cathedral of the Savior on Bor was formed an enclosed square, which is reproduced, lost in the XIX century, the composition of the ancient Kremlin ensemble. Apartments and Armory continued development along the axis of the Mock Battle Palace. Even private signs of the old Kremlin of the complex have been carefully reproduced (ground floor arcaded, the corresponding the basement, a Winter garden, the same hanging medieval gardens and an outdoor terrace with southern and Eastern sides, by analogy with the Terem promenade).

A special role plays in the Palace staterooms with a distinctive decor. George hall architectural decoration made either by a thin layer of artificial marble, or stucco on brick. Composite points on the ends of the pylons are zinc twisted columns, filled gauged bricks. Festive decoration of the hall emphasizes proper titles and images. The names of thousands of knights of St. George, immortalized on the marble slabs ofthe veneer combined with the names of famous military units. End wall of the hall is decorated with high relief St. George the sculptor P.K. Klodt. The spaces above the columns are surrounded by eighteen statues, symbolizing Russian military triumphs of the XV-XIX centuries, made by the sculptor I.P. Vitali. Russian medals were dedicated to the decoration of the Alexander, Andrew, Vladimir and Catherine halls. Each of a series of staterooms has its own type of space. This is achieved by a variety of vaults and their supports. So, a gentle dome on the wide arches of the Alexander hall contrast with cross vaults Andrews hall. The intimacy of the Vladimir hall pass allows you to use the Terem motives.

In the Palace of K.A. Ton, the spatial envelope of interior represents the exterior surface of the building structure. If you are remodeling, it entails a fundamental change in structural bases. That is what happened in 193334 with the restructuring of Andreevsky and Aleksandrovsky halls combined into one large hall by the architect LA. Ivanov-Shitsem.

The effects of such adjustments is reflected in the letter of peoples Commissar of internal Affairs G.G. Berry, IV. Stalin and VM. Molotov About the reconstruction of the hall of the Great Kremlin Palace (June 1936): In the outer longitudinal walls of the hall of the Grand Kremlin Palace cracks are penetrating the wall in a horizontal, vertical and oblique position. The opening of these cracks comes in single units up to 2.53 meters. The same cracks, only the smaller of the disclosure, there is also within the amphitheatre.

Commission of experts consisting of the Director Fundamentstroy engineers Bekhtin and professors TT. Gersevanov, Streletskiy[41], Keldysh and Nilender made a thorough inspection of these cracks, and they have found that there is a disorder of masonry walls, and it applies not only in the form of vertical bundles at the seams, but also there are gaps that separate blocks, and that it should be seen as the beginning of the destruction of the wall in the area of the amphitheatre.

The appearance of cracks and the beginning of the destruction of the wall is, in the opinion of the commission, the consequence of the depravity of the design of the hall and the incorrect calculations of its builders.

The conclusion of the commission basically confirmed also by another commission, composed of the head of civil engineering department of the NKVD by Lurie, design engineer Entin, engineer Fura.

Both commissions believe that in the present state of the walls of the conference room, pending the complete overhaul of amplification and conversion of load-bearing structures, it cannot be used.

I ask your permission to close the hall and proceed to its reconstruction.... Over the next thirty years in making current repairs were significant simplification of the interiors of the Grand Kremlin Palace.

In 1974 he created a comprehensive project of restoration and reconstruction of the Kremlin structures, providing for the creation of optimal conditions for the activities of

government bodies and museums. He developed the documentation set for this project, G.V. Makarevich, B.V., Paluiy, L.N. Nenaglyadkin, V.J. Libson and other architects. In 1979 the restoration of the Grand Kremlin Palace with Terems, Hall of Facets and Armory chambers. Still in the process of building the Grand Kremlin Palace was held the attempt of restoration of ancient buildings. But, for example, the restoration of the Terem Palace was carried out without special studies. Despite involvement in these works of outstanding professionals (EG. Solntsev and P.A. Gerasimov), to the restorations in todays sense, these works cannot be attributed. Masters lacked documentary sources, which, however are not too diligently sought. It was considered a sufficient creation of peers.

Still in the process of building the Grand Kremlin Palace was held the attempt of restoration of ancient buildings. But, for example, the restoration of the Teremnoy Palace was carried out without special studies. Despite the involvement in these works of outstanding specialists (EG. Solntsev and P.A. Gerasimov), the restorations in todays sense, these works cannot be attributed. They were not enough documentary sources for masters. It was considered a sufficient creation of equivalents. Methodologically it is more legitimate than totally arbitrary, though very expressive Gothic renovations and completion, which were practiced at the time by Carlo Rossi, I.V. Egotov and Luigi Rusca, who restored the Kremlin after the Napoleonic invasion.

Architectural details, painting of the walls and vaults thatvwere made in the 18301840s by the drawings of P.A. Gerasimov and EG. Solntsev has significantly changed the architectural and artistic image of the ancient palace. Made in the 19601970s, with partial clearing showed that under the existing original painted decoration of interiors. During restoration work in 1968 as a result of the sondage has been restored the original polychromatic gamma facades of the upper floors of the Teremnoy Palace.

Restoration work in 1968 in the Grand Kremlin Palace complex was carried out in Kiev special scientific restoration workshop and artists production of the All-Union scientific and restoration works of the Ministry of culture of the USSR. In the same period, the main task of the restorers, who worked in the St. George hall of the Palace, was the restoration of the lost molded parts and loose plaster fragments. On each square meter of the decoration of the ceiling established 17 additional metal fasteners of stainless steel that is securely tied to the ceiling with a brick arch. It was restored to historically accurate color scheme of Vladimir hall, performed in accordance with the detected original color. The most time-consuming part of the restoration work was to restore the dome and skylight in this part of the Kremlin Palace. A significant amount of complex restoration work was done in Leningrad cabinet makers in the restoration of inlaid door panels and wall panels, in which were such precious woods as rosewood, amaranth, sycamore and others.

In 19951999, in the Grand Kremlin Palace was carried out new large-scale work on the restoration of facades and reconstruction of the original appearance of its premises. They restored Alexandrovsky and Andreevsky halls that were destroyed by LA. Ivanov-Sizem in the process of building the hall of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Restorations were done on all the architectural details of the interiors, the gilding and wall upholstery fabrics, repeated and reinforced in the same places insignia and national symbols. Overall management of restoration of art works was carried out by the Vice-President of the Russian Academy of arts A.A. Bichukov. In addition, at the St. Andrew hall is a series of historically accurate detail of the restored podium, canopy and thrones. Played passages, staircase and lobbies, implemented a scientific restoration of the St. George hall. Total area of rehabilitation works was about 21.1 thousand sq. m. According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation B.N. Yeltsin About the end of reconstruction and restoration of the Grand Kremlin Palace only the additional costs incurred in connection with the execution of works to enhance the stability of buildings and structures amounted to 22.5 million USA dollars'. Thus, at the end ofthe XX century was restored in its original forms of the state rooms of the Palace: St. Andrew the main Imperial hall of the Kremlin; Alexander, named in honor of the order of St. Alexander Nevsky, Vladimir, connecting the enfilade of the ceremonial halls and the Palace of facets and the Teremnoy Palace; George named in honor of the Order of St. George and became a real temple of glory of the Russian arms; Catherine, devoted to womens Order of St. Catherine. Despite its small size (length about 21 m) the lounge features a refined and unique interior.

The most famous and significant among the rooms in the main Suite of the Grand Kremlin Palace is St Georges hall. Its length is 60 m wide, 20 metres in height and the walls are placed with marble plaques with the mention of the victorious regiments, dates of their institution, monograms of the emperors who created these shelves. On the pylons are carved the names of 11 thousand knights of the Order of St. George[42] . The interior of the hall is decorated in white and gold colours. The parties have 18 twisted columns of white zinc. Above them is mounted open work white entablature. The barrel vault of the St. George hall is adorned with decorative coffered with ornamental stucco.

Construction and reconstruction works is performed by the Federal state unitary enterprise AteksFSO ofthe Russian Federation. The project documentation is developed by the architectural Bureau of Mosproyekt-2 named after M.V. Posokhin.

In the process of scientific and technical support of the design, renovation and restoration of the complexity of buildings of the Grand Kremlin Palace (19941999) the important role was played by a laboratory Inspection and reconstruction of buildings and structures of the Testing of structure Department of MGSU. Under the supervision of Professor Y.S. Kunin at the first stage of works in the Kremlin were conducted all the necessary engineering surveys and investigations, including geophysical, geological, social studies, geodetic monitoring of structures, the study of the state of the walls, ceiling vaults, and reinforced concrete structures, erected in years 19321934 clarified that the bearing metal over Vladimir, George and recreated Alexander and St. Andrew halls, are in a healthy condition. This conclusion was made after a thorough examination of the properties of the metal and make test calculations. These metal structures are rare surviving monuments of the history of technology of the mid-nineteenth century and represent the early stage of development of steel construction.

Specialists of MGSU have also carried out calculations of reinforced concrete shells of the rooms, checked the quality of installation of metal structures, conducting static

testing of suspended plaster vaults and assemblies and their anchorages, controlled the quality of connections stucco and decorative elements'.

Thus, by 2001, in the Grand Kremlin Palace was held a comprehensive survey of structures and slab, flue and air ducts, replacement of utilities, restoration of interiors and pieces of furniture.

During the restoration of their own, half of the Grand Kremlin Palace held the restoration of wall paintings, gilding and faux marble. They recreated carpets, updated fabric wall decorations, upholstery. They completed restoration of chandeliers, including unique chandeliers porcelain Pineapple, made at the Lomonosov factory in St. Petersburg.

In 2011 repairs and restoration were made of the Winter garden of the Grand Kremlin Palace. The garden was created in 1958 on the site of the Western part of the Seigniorial courts. They installed a modern system of ventilation, air-conditioning and telecommunications. They designed and installed a glass dome, equipped with special blinds for light control facilities, necessary for the growth of ornamental plants and the drainage system in the soil. Interior walls were updated together with cornices of Italian marble. In Winter, garden celebrations are held with the participation of the President of Russia and Prime Minister of the Russian Federation[43] .

Armoury Chamber

Three buildings form the Western part of the complex of the Grand Kremlin Palace: Apartment of the Grand Dukes, the official Stable building and Armoury Chamber. The last building was originally intended for the exposition of the Kremlin collection of jewelry, utensils and weapons. The compositional arrangement of the buildings and their configuration was determined who was in this part of the Kremlin Stable yard. Armoury has a strictly symmetrical plan and a pronounced plastic accent on the back, visible only from a great distance, side.

The internal layout of the Armoury involves the movement of visitors along the body (from the end). T.A. Slavina considers the location of the rotunda in relation to this motion is completely random, and suggests that K.A. Ton who designed the building, was instructed to follow the planning scheme of previous building of the Armoury Chamber, built by I.V. Egorovym in 18061808 years near Trinity gates of the Kremlin, representing the two long halls on the sides of the Central square.

Unusual schematic layout of the Tone carries on in a graceful and at the same time a clear three-dimensional structure. The most impressive part of the upper doubleheight exhibition halls. They are covered by cross vaults, the side edge are formed by thin columns of load-bearing pylons. K.A. Ton in this building realizes an extremely rare variant of the toroidal arch over semi-circular ends of the building.

The stylistic affiliation of the Armoury Chamber is a combination of European architectural language with separate traditionally Russian elements (ornamentation carved columns and frequently used in the Tone making angles three columns). The construction of the Armoury Chamber was carried out for seven years (1844-1851). Located near the Borovitskaya tower, the building of the chamber served as a

Armoury Chamber

continuation of the main body of the Palace. The architect allocated the building of the Museum, combining the top two floors of a large order from twisted, with floral ornaments of columns. This technique ensured the facade of the Armoury Chamber certain respectability, and even grandeur.

Methods of decorative treatment, like the shape of window openings, despite the use of relatively large columns, link the facade of the chamber with the facade of the main building of the Grand Kremlin Palace. Large windows provide good natural lighting of the halls of the Armoury Chamber, which M.V. Alpatov and D.S. Likhachev believed one of the best Museum buildings of the XIX century[44]. A.V. Ikonnikov stressed that the building of the chamber together with the housing Apartments on the one hand continues the rhythm of the facades of the Grand Kremlin Palace, and on the other softens the transition from his large array to the environment.

The interior of the Armory Chamber of K.A. Ton was originally assumed a clear functional use. The first room was designed for exhibiting the collection of Russian and foreign arms of the XIIXIX centuries. The Exhibition consisted of cold, firearms and armor. The second room was intended for the Russian gold and silver items of the XII-XVII centuries was mainly supposed to put a variety of items, including gold and silver ware, made in the workshops of the Moscow Kremlin. The third hall was conceived as a storage space for Russian gold and silver jewelry of the XVIII-XIX centuries. As a center of jewelry manufacturing in this period is Saint Petersburg, which was translated by the best craftsmen of the Armoury Chamber, the interior of the third hall called for the use of European ornamentation. The fourth room was given entirely to the precious fabrics. The greatest value was represented by the vestments of the high-ranking clergy of the XIVXVIII centuries made of Byzantine, Persian and Turkish fabrics.

The fifth room was intended for foreign silver articles XVXIX centuries. As exhibited in the hall of the product English, Polish, German, French and Dutch

works, as well as Turkish items made of crystal and Jasper, the decorative interior design involves the combination of European and Oriental motifs. In the sixth hall exhibited the regalia of the order and ceremonial clothes. Accommodation in this hall of the five ancient Royal thrones, scepter, power and the Royal crowns, including the Monomakhs cap due to its special role and the most festive decoration. The seventh and eighth halls intended for large and very rare collection of items of ceremonial horse harness, the so-called stables of the Treasury. Some of these things were made by Russian craftsmen; the other came to Russia as gifts from foreign ambassadors and sales representatives. In the ninth hall were presented to the crews of the XVIXIX centuries.

In the process of reconstruction works in the Moscow Kremlin conducted in 1995-1999, project documentation for the building of the Armory Chamber was designed by the architectural-construction Bureau JSC Mosproject-2 named after M. V. Posokhin.

1.2. Red Square

Red Square

Pokrovsky Cathedral. St. Basil's Cathedral

Red Square in historical, architectural and artistically attitude towards is inseparable from the Kremlin. It is come into existence in the end of XV century, when Grand Prince Ivan III in the territory of the settlement is exempt from home trade. From here the original name of the square was a Trade. In forming of architectural ensemble of the square the leading role played by the Kremlin wall with the Frolovskaya (Spasskaya), Senatskaya and Nikolskaya towers that defined the longitudinal composition of the square.

Dominating of the square, starting from the XVI century is Pokrovsky Cathedral, the highest building at that time in Moscow (57 m). It was built on the moat, on the Borovitsky Hill above the Moscow River, apart from other buildings. The hill on which was built the Cathedral, as it appeared in engineering examination in the beginning of XXI century is a specialized company KREAL, partially bulk. He may have formed the earthwork associated with the device of the ditch in the beginning of XVI century. The ditch along the Kremlin wall had a width of 3738 m, and a depth of 11 m. Was identified defects strip foundations and construction of retaining walls[45]. Peculiarity of location of the Pokrovsky Cathedral at the Frolovsky (Spassky) gates in the fact that he dominates the large open spaces and serves as a link between the Kremlin and Kitay-gorod. The Cathedral is delivered outside of the Kremlin that symbolizes the unity of Tsar and people (trading quarter) under the auspices of the Almighty. Temple in architectural form and composition reflect the worldview of the middle of XVI century the ideal of reform of the centralized state embodied the new image of Moscow suburbs in the antagonism of the king and the boyars, as well as strengthening the unity and union of the people.

The uniqueness of the monument is a bright image, the symmetry of the ensemble, originality, harmony combination of different forms of artistic originality. The special feature of the monument of military glory the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat in that it is dedicated to the capture of Kazan by Ivan IV, the Terrible, the main battle was held on October 2, 1552, the day of the intercession of the Holy Virgin. In the process of war after each major victory, about a flock at this place the white stone Church of the Trinity, was erected a small wooden Church in the name of the Saint whose memory was celebrated on victory day. To end the war on the same site erected eight churches. The architecture of the temple was created from traditional forms of Russian wooden architecture with carved ornaments. The Cathedral was built to commemorate the

Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed

1 Almazova N.M., Batalov A.L. Monuments of Architecture. Engineering surveying. Cathedral of the Intercession of the Most Holy Theotokos on the Moat (Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed). Vol. 3. M., 2005. P. 12, 52.

victory over Kazan and Astrakhan khanates. Built in 1552-1554 years the churches were consecrated on 1 October 1554'. But they did not meet the grandeur of the monument, therefore, in 1554 Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible ordered to break them and to build a stone Cathedral, which was created by the architects Barma and Postnik (15551561). Some sources say that this same person Ivan Yakovlevich Barma. Stone Cathedral by order of Ivan IV was to consist of eight separate churches. In the construction of the temple was borrowed the basic forms of wooden churches small in size, but elongated in height. During the construction the plane of Cathedral was changed, was added ninth, major chapel dedicated to the feast of the Intercession of the Mother of God.

It is based on the plan that corresponds to canons of Church architecture in the shape of a cross symmetric formulation of eight volumes on the sides of the ninth, the central high and complex in a structural sense of the Cathedral of the Intercession of the Mother of God, which on 29 June 1561 was consecrated by Metropolitan Macarius, as evidenced by an open in the upper tier of the octagon lettering[46] . The whole Cathedral has got its original name of the Intercession on the Moat. In the overall composition representing a coherent group of nine churches to create a single artistic whole, it was a novelty. All the churches were of different height, finish, shapes and patterns. Cathedral monument rose on the ground-floor, nine pillars were connected by passages and galleries. The materials from which they built traditional white limestone and red burnt brick, color tiles, iron. Applied limestone in the basement, the foundation, the projecting embossed ornaments. The average tent was decorated with colored tiles and inside, painted on the brick reliefs. First form pillars and tent churches gathered together as elements of one composition. The innovation was that each of them retained its value as an independent Church, while remaining part of the body of the Cathedral.

All the churches are connected with interior transitions from the outside covered shared vault. Lead into the Cathedral square, intricately decorated tents porches. And there is an internal stone staircase which takes you up into the Central Church with a ground floor (podklet). The Red Square and the Kremlin turned a large part of the towers, the picturesque combination of which conveys the joy and celebration of the people.

In the image of the Cathedral was created the distinctive Russian architecture, free from the Byzantine tradition and Italian samples, a transition from volipresence temple to devicepresence with unique centralized composition. The symbolic significance of the temple determined the choice of artistic means. At the level of Church buildings the pillars are not connected to each other by walls. The equivalence of the Church Cathedral is determined by the ratio of the size of their plan.

The Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat is a model of the Heavenly Jerusalem. In the architectural decoration of the manifest laws of the sculpture.

The Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat with an annex Entrance of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem becomes the liturgical center that is confirmed by isolation of the annex of the Entrance of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem in the General composition by location and decoration. Annex Entrance of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem was delivered from the West side to the annex of the Holy Trinity. He was the first on the way up the entrance stairs to the temple complex stood out among the other octagonal pillars with dimensions in plan and four additional domes at the base of the

drum of the Central dome. In XVIXVII centuries the Cathedral was called Jerusalem, as reflected in the writings of foreigners'.

Pictural asymmetry that preserves the integrity of perception, gives the building a special beauty. A few in the distance is a tent arrangement, the upper part of which resembles a tent of the Central temple.

For the design of tent and the drums applied diverse series of innovative features, different patterns, decorated dome. Metal rings, spirals, insertion of the tile complement the stone decorative elements.

Inside the Cathedral is divided into two floors. Lower ground, was intended for household purposes here in the XVI century the Treasury was kept. The height of this layer is about 6 meters.

The compositional structure of the Cathedral is the highest pillar, culminating in a pyramidal tent with a small cupola of a Church shape. The rest of the tower pillars are much lower, but they are topped with large domes. At the core of the pillars is characteristic for the Russian architecture of the 16th and 17th centuries eight. They differ in proportions and height.

The Central part of the Cathedral is the Pokrovsky Church (49 square metre) and 47.5 m in height. Other churches are inferior to it in size, form and height, but they complement each other. The room is not suited for large groups of people. Diagonally set lower annexes, which is dedicated to saints Nikola Velikoretsky (South), Holy martyrs Cyprian and Ustine (North), Entrance of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem (Western), Trinity (East), St. Gregory the illuminator of Armenia (North-West), the Three patriarchs of Constantinople (North-East), the venerable Alexander Svirsky (South-East), the venerable Barlaam of Khutyn (South-West).

Studies show that the tower and exterior stair builders Pokrovsky Cathedral was erected by the full-scale construction. So in the annex of the entry Entrance of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem can be seen the inequality of the sides of the octahedron and the irregularity of the decorated shapes that adorn its walls. At the same time, the walls, the arches, the window openings of the basement, its exterior decorative details rigorous and accurate on the forms and drawings that showed that the most important in a structural sense, the main part was built on the architectural drawings. The plan of the temple is clear and symmetry through East West. Centrally positioned trapezoidal chancel. All the temples are separated from each other, between them and the main temple of the inner by-pass ladder. The Church of the Intercession you can get around at galleries, and between outside of the open exits to bypass the external gallery of the Cathedral. Each of the pillars outside topped with onion domes, these chapters smooth twisted or twisted with a faceted pointed rust star tiles, gilded metal spirals that adorn the tent of the Central pillars. The head of the Pokrovsky Cathedral, the first bulbous cover in ancient architecture where the arches of the reels was covered with clay tiles or metal directly on masonry[47] .

The interiors of the Pokrovsky Cathedral, as on the facades, there is a fascination with brick walls painted brick masonry caissons unique flat ceiling with nothing masked. Portals are, in appearance of which it is easy to guess the prototype of the Renaissance have protruding squares that cover the field of the panels and forming a figure in chess. In the Pokrovsky Cathedral of the intercession a large part of the relief decorations built using brick.

Since the last quarter of the XVI century because of the fires 1571 and 1594, repair work was carried out. Changes the appearance of the Pokrovsky Cathedral in accordance with the aesthetic ideals of each age.

In 1588, Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich added the Church of St. Basil the Blessed, over his grave, located on the outer wall of the Eastern side altars of the Church of the Trinity.

At the same time on of the gallery site was disassembled and in its place came the tenth, the existing stone Church. It is a small domed temple without pillar set between the basements of the churches of the Holy Trinity and the three patriarchs of Constantinople.

From the eighties of the XVII century is undergoing the most major changes in the architecture of the Cathedral. Instead of wooden beams above the galleries of the second floor is made of brick arches with a small tent above the lockers porches. On the second floor above the Church of St. Basil the Blessed from the South-East side is built the Church of Feodosiya. On top of an ancient belfry erected hitherto existing bell tower with a shingled hipped-roof coating. The first is the coloring of the Cathedral inside and outside at the re-arranged surfaces on the arcade and the arches of the inner passages. External and internal gallery, platforms, railings porches were painted with herbal ornament. These updates were completed by 1683 as evidenced tiled frieze, on tiles which are set out on the upgrading of the Cathedral. The original appearance of the Cathedral was altered in the annex at the beginning of the 1680 years the Cathedral was transferred to the thrones of 13 churches standing between Florovsky and Nikolskie gates. Pokrovsky Cathedral was perceived as a unified whole. At the end of the XVII century, as considered I.E. Zabelin, was made all the coloring of the Cathedral[48].

Following repairs was made at the beginning of the XVIII century, when wooden arches rotted and decayed from rain, of them have had bricks and blocks of white stone. In 1737 during a fire in the Pokrovsky Cathedral burned the roof on the entrance, on the porch, cracks in the galleries, the cathedrals, and the bell tower suffered. Written by Metropolitan Macarius image of temple annex of Nicholas Velikoretsky burned down in 1737, and the new was only founded in 1786. Conical parts of the upper walls of the chapel were covered with oil paintings, representing the illustration of the Nikons chronicle about bringing the image of Nicholas in Moscow. Excerpts from the chronicle adorned the lower part of the octagon.

Directed in accordance with the decree on carrying out regular maintenance architect Ivan Michurin took the plan, made the estimate. In 1739 carried out under his leadership, restoration work, but in 1751 the inventory of the churches in the Pokrovsky Cathedral was commissioned to be the architect knyaz D.M. Ukhtomskiy. In 1767, instead of the mica frames put frames on the windows, the walls whitened. In the Entrance of Our Lord Jesus Christ into Jerusalem set the iconostasis of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. The walls inside of the Cathedral were painted. A single silver-plated iconostasis, decorated with gilded tin figures. In between the icons placed gilded spiral columns.

In 1772 laid the iron-tiled roof of the Church. In 1775 renewed the annex of the Basil the Blessed, where the scenes were images of the acts of his life.

By years 1780 the situation of the Cathedral was critical, as the merchants in the building next to the Cathedral, shops weakened the retaining wall and the foundation. Following comprehensive work was carried out at Catherine II dictation. The bell tower

was connected with an annex building of the Cathedral. In 1784-1786 he was in charge of the restoration of Ivan Yakovlev, who found that the stairs, walls, white stone cornices, plinths, curly head above the aisles are in poor condition. Was renovated pavilion of Pokrovskaiy Church, covered with iron cornice, repaired stairs to the porches, the walls whitewashed, the Church painted and painted. In 1793 it was repaired the porch of the Cathedral, roof. Supported only those churches which were needed for divine service.

Looted, desecrate, fire-ravaged in the Kremlin in 1812 from the French occupation, the Pokrovsky Cathedral is restored by the decision of the Commission on the structure in Moscow. The Cathedral is freed from the surrounding shops, takes down the apse of the annex of the Theophany, and in the East wall of the tower was laid the openings from the royal gates.

In 1838, during the repair of the new Cathedral was fortified the Western arch over the Western section of the gallery, and in 18451849 white stone floor in the porch of the second tier cobalt age[49]. Appear wall paintings and created iconostasis. Repair work at the first capital city on the monuments of architecture in the second half of the XIX century was carried out under the supervision of the Moscow archaeological and other scientific societies. In 1877 the temple was viewed by A.S. Uvarov, I.E. Zabelin, L.V. Dahl, N.V. Nikitin and installed threatening cathedrals cracks in the walls and vaults. But only in 18921897 under the leadership of A.M. Pavlinov was eliminated cracks in the vault of the annex of the St. Basil the Blessed, replace the crumbling arch of the sacristy, strengthened the construction of the heads of the aisles of the entry into Jerusalem and of Nicholas Velikoretsky. In the tent chapel of the Intercession of the Virgin replaced by tiles made in the workshops of the Stroganov specialized school.

In 18981913 the repair and restoration of the Pokrovsky temple was completed under the guidance of academician S.U. Solovyov. Started World War I prevented an overall restoration of the Cathedral. During the storming of the Kremlin by the bolsheviks on 25 October 1917 by a shell struck his head and the arch of the chapel of the Entry into Jerusalem. The modern appearance of the Cathedral is largely determined by the research and restoration of the architecture and painting of 1921, held under the leadership ofD.P. Sukhov.

In 1918 the Pokrovsky Cathedral taken by the bolsheviks under the state protection as a monument of national and global importance. The Soviet restoration begin in 1918, in Moscow was established the Commission on the restoration of the Cathedral, but only in 1920 was held a previously scheduled immediate restoration of the annex of the Entry into Jerusalem.

In 1923 during investigations in the Cathedral took an active part the architect D.L. Sukhov. He studied only the lower part of the building and identified the initial profile of the ancient parts of the Cathedral. D.A. Sukhov on the basis of the obtained data first suggested the combination of the external appearance of the temple of the red tones of the walls with white stone detail. Was reconstructed the original iconostasis.

It was found that the central tent, made of small bricks, during the restoration in 1898 was turned, many of the details got distorted. A number of interesting discoveries were made by N. Sobolev and designs of ancient arches of the galleries.

The author of the restoration project together with a leading architect of O.N. Prutsi-nin, restorer N.N. Suchev carefully studied the colorful decorations of the facades. The study showed that the layer of paint was in poor condition, which adversely affect the

masonry and the mortar. Revealed layering of ornamental paintings, and their repeated renewal not according to the original contours of distorted tectonics facades.

The researchers, examining the iconographic materials of the XVIIXIX centuries, comparing them with field findings in the result of the polls, made the project of restoration of the initial decision of facades of the Central pillars and four pillars located at the four cardinal points. Were confirmed by layering numerous acting parts of facades, cornices, rods, ribs, tents, arrows on the faces of the pillars of the archivolt, and a semicircular keelshaped kokoshniks. There were traces of colouring with ochre, green, blue, remnants of gold overlay and decorated with frescoes, which are preserved fragments of ancient wall-paintings under a brick. The study of the Cathedral N.N. Sobolev has led to the conclusion that the growth of the buildings were constructed of light wooden frame, which modeling his complex architectural forms.

Restoration of the building of the temple was the purpose of the Museum exhibit fragments. The concept of exposure is defined D.P. Sukhov, N.N. Pomerantsev, E.I. Silin. In 1929 in the Cathedral divine services are prohibited, removed the bells. In 1936 he made a measurement of the Pokrovsky Cathedral P.D. Baranovsky. He not only opened the way to reconstruction of destroyed buildings is preserved in the masonry of the brick fragments, was the first to introduce reinforced concrete ties in the channels left from decayed wooden parts, was engaged in the problems of conservation, restoration fragments of fallen masonry, but defended doomed to demolition of the Pokrovsky Cathedral, prevented the destruction of the temple by the Soviet authorities'. Some researchers believe that it is a legend.

Directly after the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 began systematic restoration works. The Museum was reopened on September 7, 1947.

In 1954-1956 scientific restoration was headed by architect N.N. Sobolev, who restored the restoration projects of the temple and reconstruction of the East facade of the Cathedral. Restored walls and white-stone details of the Cathedral, covering platforms, steps porches, covered and painted dome. The original appearance was returned to the decoration of the tent of the Church of Intercession with ceramic and metal ornaments (spirals, rings)[50] .

In 1969 the head of the dome was covered with copper. In 19791980 during the restoration were made by adding external painting of the Church. Since 1991 the Cathedral is used by the Orthodox Church.

In 1997 was completed the interior restoration of the Church of Basil the Blessed, Complex scientific restoration of the Cathedral (head of N.S. Romanov, the chief architect of the project TP. Nikitina) was carried out in 20012012.

Archaeological excavations have revealed the foundations of the XVII century. Quaint labyrinth of basement height of 6.5 m with a large for the length of the semicircular arch of the temple keeps the original brickwork of the walls of the reign of Ivan IV. During the restoration an attempt was made to move away from previous techniques, to avoid practices of remake. In 2007 in Nicholsliy annex were carried out extensive restoration work. Was carried out the restoration ofthe iconostasis, the restored painting. The upper tier of the Pokrovsky Cathedral preserved historical interiors. The Museum exhibits numerous archaeological findings from the excavations in the Cathedral, unique exhibits. Financial assistance in the restoration works provided the holding Russian Railways, the charitable trust Transsoyuz. According to this, on territory of the temple was open commemorative tablet.

To preserve the unique monument of global importance, to restore the integrity of his image and restore his original appearance. Held in the XXI century more than 10 years of extensive restoration of the Pokrovsky Cathedral, enabled him to buy the integrity and original appearance.

A great contribution to the scientific study of the Pokrovsky Cathedral at the turn of XXXXI centuries have made the workers of the SC Kreal and primarily the Chairman of the Subcommittee on engineering diagnostics of architectural and urban monuments of the Russian Committee of ICOMOS, member of the British Academy nondestructive testing, Doctor of Technical Sciences Almazova N.M. a graduate of MISI-MGSU. Under her supervising, implemented a unique integrated scientific and technical examination of buildings and structures, in which were participated P.h.D. Rimskiy M.A., P.h.D. Voronin A.N., Pavlova S.V., Rogozhina O.A., Dubinina V.I. Engineering surveys allowed us to obtain a complete picture of the condition of the historical monument. Consciously and competently approach to the issue of urgent and immediate activities for the restoration and restoration1. Received by the specialists of SC Kreal data become a source material for the project of restoration of a unique architectural monument.

Place of Execution

On the eastern side of Red Square opposite the Frolovskaya (Spasskaya) tower of the Kremlin is located the Place of Execution, the first recorded mention of which dates from the XVI century (1547). First wooden platform, then it was brick-lined circular structure (15971598). The Place of Execution, as in Jerusalem (Golgotha), stood in front of the entrance of the main gate of the Kremlin. The name presumably associated with the location of Place of Execution on the sloping beach of the Moscow River.

Place of Execution

1 Almazova N.M., Batalov A. P. Monuments of Architecture. Engineering surveys. Vol. 3. Cathedral Protection of the Blessed Virgin on the Moat (Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed). M., 2005. P. 86-87.

Round (diameter is about 13 meters) elevation with stone carvings, iron doors and bars, was surrounded by a parapet; platform and stairs, over the entire structure gave the shed1.

Since ancient times the place of execution played a major role in the social life of Russia. Here a solemn sacred rites were read by the kings orders, reported the elect in the Kingdom the sovereigns, the kings and patriarchs had turned their word to the people. Here Ivan IV promised to be a righteous judge and defender of his subjects in 1606, was call out by Russian Tsar Vasily Shuisky in 1610 with Place of Execution P. Lyapunov was spoken dethronement of V. Shuisky, in 1612 Prince Dmitry Pozharsky has declared here the liberation of Moscow from Polish invaders. From the Place of Execution Patriarch Nikon sprinkled with Holy Water of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov. During the reign of Catherine 11 the Place of Execution was reconstructed by the architect D. Ukhtomsky, and 1786 by the architect M. Kazakov, keeping the same shape Place of Execution, gave a monumentality through the use of wild hewn stone for the severe white stone veneer. Round the platform was protected by a stone railing, and from the west staged a stepped entrance with iron bars and a door. Place of Execution has been repeatedly restored.

Kazan Cathedral

In the XVII century increased the role of the Red Square in Moscow life, enriched its architectural appearance. Wooden Kazan Cathedral was built in 1632, it burned down in April 1635, and the Emperor allocated for the restoration of the temple from a brick built Palace in the Kremlin. The Cathedral was erected next to the Kremlin in the North-Eastern corner of Red Square, opposite the second by the value of the Nicholas gate of the Kremlin. Kazan Cathedral (16361637.), which became the main monument of the liberation war of 1612 against foreign oppressors with moral support

Kazan Cathedral

1 Kondratiev I.K. High antiquity of Moscow. M., 1894. P. 76.

and intercession of the miracle-working Kazan Mother of God. Kazan Cathedral has become an essential part of ensemble of Red Square. The basis of the figurative and symbolic value of the Cathedral was the idea of continuity between the victories of national importance. It was built on the initiative and at the expense of the leader of the Russian soldiers and militia liberator of Moscow D.I. Pozharsky, in 1636 the Cathedral was consecrated by Patriarch Filaret. Small, square in plan, the temple with three sides of the gallery, at the North-Western corner ends with a hipped bell tower, and the North-Eastern Temple of Saint Averikiy lerapolskiy. Plastic effect adds keel-shaped corbel arch, deep panels on the tents of the quadrangle, triangular architraves.

The Cathedral was distinguished by restraint of architectural decoration, a variety of elaborate facades. The Cathedral had a large pillarless quadrangular frame, on the one hand the massive apse, there is no basement. It is roofed with the cloistered vault and crowned by a slide corbel arch[51].

At the same time with the Cathedral was built North-East chapel gallery and the bell tower.

It was one of the first churches where used for cloistered vault ceiling pillarless space. The composition of the ensemble: the asymmetry of the secondary volumes, the location of the bell tower at the North-West corner, the use of arched galleries, a semicircular apse, passed deep to the East. Characterized by the design of the crowning parts of the Kazan Cathedral, the headdresses are placed running across.

Generous architectural composition characterizes the wholeness, the well found proportions of the drum of the head, placement of corbel arch running across. The docking place of the bottom number and the angular headdresses of the 2nd series set on the diagonal.

A low vaulted arch gallery (inner size of 2.83 m) surrounded the Cathedral from three sides. Belfry is crowned with the completion of the arches 8-migranin a bell, the flat edge on the ribs, and one near the windows rumors, bulbous head, which indicates the restructuring of the bell tower in the XVII century.

Poor decor includes framed blades, separating the walls of the quadrangle into three equal parts and keel-shaped corbel arch. A feature of the facade was the lack of eaves.

The Cathedral was built by A. Maximov, the disciple of Feodor Kon in 1650 in front of the Cathedral were built a new porch and belfry, at the end of the XVII century, to construct front porch, crowned with a head. In 1690 put the fence of stone pillars with wooden slats.

After the completion of the Cathedral from him to the place of execution was placed a wooden bridge called Red bridge, and near the temple Red Square. For the construction of the Cathedral of the awards went to the leaders of the order of stone affairs S. Glebov and N. Petrov. The Royal family made attachment to the temple (2 bells and the image of the Savior).

In 1649, in the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, the Tsars decree gilded the Royal doors.

In 60 years of XVII century, the status of the Kazan Cathedral rose, the names of its prototypes mentioned above the prototypes of the Cathedral of the Intercession on the Moat. In the Cathedral put prominent and close to the court of the priests. The Liturgy was done only by the Patriarch. Soon, however, destroyed the southern limit, and the elements received a Baroque decor.

With the Cathedral associated rod customs of urban life: here merchants bring to the purifying of the oath; nearby were placed the hole (a prison for debtors). At the Kazan Cathedral was intersected by two main streets and the main square was seething commercial life, met the ambassadors. In 16871688 near the Cathedral built race battery (peal) with two guns. In the Northwest corner, was selling Church utensils, books.

In XVIIIXIX centuries the Cathedral was repeatedly reconstructed and rebuilt. In the Chronicles there is evidence that after severe fire in 1632, the Church was restored Ambrosim Maximov, a follower of a Feodor Kon. Kazan Cathedral, the first built in the Moscow Church after the Time of Trouble became a model for further construction. Here is preserved a copy of the icon of St Nicholas the Wonderworker from the Nikolskaya tower. This is a foreshadowing of the victory of 1812. After the war put it on the second tier in the form of classicism, and in 1865 the bell tower of the Cathedral built by the third layer, increase decorative elements. The main body of the Cathedral gets more upbeat conclusion of a new chapter. At the end of XVIII century beginning of XIX century, the Cathedral lost its significance as the dominant Northern part of the Red Square. To the North of the Cathedral in 1830 was erected in a Baroque facility of Mint, in 18861890 years was built a new two-story series in the form of classicism D.D. Quarenghi, and the historical status was transferred to the Kazan Cathedral in St. Petersburg. After the Patriotic war of 1812 attempts were made to rebuild the Cathedral and on the project of 1838 to embroider, but the project was not implemented[52]. The role of distinctive national forms in the guise of the Red Square has greatly increased in connection with the construction in the Russian style of Pomerantsevs upper trading rows and the Historical Museum.

In 19231930 was made careful measurements during restoring the Cathedral by P.D. Baranovskiy, so during the renovation as not to spoil the entire Red Square decided not to put falsework. All remnants of the old forms of the Cathedral were restored. In 1930 restoration was stopped. In 1936 the Cathedral was demolished because the task was to change the face of Moscow and the aesthetics of the reconstruction of L.M. Kaganovich demanded, that column of the six districts of Moscow at the same time was joined on the Red Square. The researchers emphasize the moral attitude to heritage. The monument of military glory was demolished under the pretext of combating religion, but could serve for patriotic purposes. At the end of the 1980, an initiative was launched to recreate the Kazan Cathedral. At the end of the 1880 the Moscow Archeological Expedition of the Institute of Archeology of USSR Academy of Sciences head L.Y. Belyaev, studied the foundations of the Kazan Cathedral and the adjacent territories. November 4, 1990 (20 November old style), on the holiday of Kazan Mother of God, a solemn laying of the temple. Were involved in text documents and materials by P.D. Baranovskiy, which allowed representing the ancient architecture of the Cathedral. In 1990-1993 began the restoration of the monument in the ancient form preserved measurements (architect O.I. Zhurin, G.Y. Makeev), which was the first example of the full restoration of the ancient Cathedral which took its place in the ensemble of red square. At the initiative of the Moscow branch of the all-Russia society of protection of monuments of history

and culture, unique monument symbol, the Cathedral of the miraculous icon of the Kazan Mother of God was restored on the ancient foundations. In the process of reconstruction sought to introduce into the reconstructed structure changes. In the Kazan Cathedral documentary reasons relate to the main volume of the Church and its North aisle. Researchers believe that the new building has been deliberately raised in relation to the previous mark. Form the South chapel, the gallery and the bell tower of the Church are the authors arbitrariness, and some motifs of decoration of the bell tower look strange, not knowing her likes among the Moscow buildings of XVII century. Recreated the belfry of the Cathedral received nine bells transferred to their storage of the Bolshoi Theatre. Restoration of various architectural finishes a series of large and small headdress, the decorative elements on the facades and the reels and other elements reproduce the Kazan Cathedral of the XVII century. 4 November 1993 the Church was consecrated by Patriarch Alexy II.

In the process of rebuilding period (19941996) was built in 1680 (demolished in 1913) between the Historical Museum and the building of the State Duma (now the Museum of the Patriotic war of 1812) the resurrection gate is a two-span arched passage completes the two-storey chambers crowned by two octagonal tents or the Iversk Gates to the chapel appeared the decorative elements, which is to save the images.

State Historical Museum

The building of the State Historical Museum a unique historical and cultural monument built on the North side of Red Square opposite Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed.

The necessity for the establishment of a Museum in Moscow, which responded to the needs of historical science, began to realize in the XVIII century, but only in the XIX century there were various projects of this Museum, reflecting the national specific of Russia.

In the sixties of XIX century, wanting to awaken and develop in the society the interest in history, Russian archaeologist earl A.S. Uvarov proposed to create a repository of antiquities, visually representing the history of Russia and raising the prestige of the city.

The idea of building a Museum of national history appear in 1872 in the preparation of the Polytechnic exhibition in Moscow in the frame of celebration of the 200th Anniversary of the birth of Peter I and the 725 Anniversary of the founding of Moscow.

The organizers of the Sevastopol Department of the Moscow Polytechnic exhibition in 1872 after it were transferred to the future Museum of antiquities of Chersonesos and artifacts illustrating the defense of Sevastopol in 1855. In the same 1872yearthe Emperor Alexander II approved the idea of creation in Moscow the Historical Museum, and earl A.S. Uvarov wrote the Charter of the future Museum, which was approved by the Emperor on 2 August 1874. Moscow State Duma has allocated for the construction of a building ground in Red Square. Primarily for the construction was allotted land along the Kremlin wall between Spasskie and Nikolskie gates. Later, taking into account the socio-educational function of the Museum, which not only urban but also national significance, the State Duma has passed for the construction of the Museum great in historical value and central place in its location the place in opposite of the Pokrovsky Cathedral, which at first was intended for the construction of the building of the city government and cost 245 thousand rubles'.

In the 1874 was created by a special academic Commission, which included such major historians like K.N. Bestuzhev-Ryumin, VO. Klyuchevsky, S.M. Solovyev, etc. Among the members of the Commission were A.S. Uvarov and connoisseur of Moscow

State Historical Museum

I.E. Zabelin. Laying of the foundation stone of the building took place in August 1875 in presence of Emperor Alexander II.

A.S. Uvarov formed on his funds part of the Museums collections and donated to the Museum his collection of valuable archaeological artifacts. The organization of the historical Museum of the earl A.S. Uvarov was granted the order of St. Anne of I degree. A major role in the establishment of the Museum played Zabelin Ivan Egorovich was a historian, archeographic, Museum worker, collector, actual state councillor (1876), corresponding member (1884), honorary member (1907) of St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. In 18791888 he was Chairman of the Moscow society for the history of Russian antiquities. From 1883 until the end of life I.E. Zabelin was a friend of Chairman the Historical Museum, one of its main organizers and founders. He drew a design of halls of the Historical Museum of the leading historians in their projects reflect the focus and regularities of the historical process[53].

In accordance with the philosophy of that period, the building of the Museum, which aims to serve as a visual history of the main eras of the Russian state must become a visible manifestation of the Russian nation. It was seen as a monument to the era and the personification of Russia, so the style of the building is not in doubt national, Russian. However, Uvarov A.S. and the I.E. Zabelin sparked controversy about what samples of ancient architecture should be guided in the development of architectural forms of the Museum building.

A.S. Uvarov believed that they should take the traditions of Vladimir-Suzdal architecture. Zabelin I.E. defended his theory that Russian stone architecture in its forms and methods depended on an earlier, wooden one. Chopped houses, he believed,

was for Russian architecture of the primary element, and the universal module, from which developed other types of buildings.

The opinion of I.E. Zabelin get the best because the Museum building was supposed to stand on Red Square in the neighbourhood to the Kremlin, which was equal to Zabelin as a model. Achieving harmony Red Square with the inclusion of the building of the Historical Museum was seen as a major task of architects. In the end, the Commissions competition programme obliged the authors to focus on characteristic peculiarity of Russian architecture of the XVIXVII centuries.

In December 1874, in Moscow news, a competition was announced and published the program for the best project of the Historical Museum in the style of Ivan the Terrible. The competition was attended by eight architects: R.A. Gedike, L.V Dal, A.S. Kaminskiy, A.L. Ober, A.P. Popov, I.P. Heradinov, VO. Sherwood, N.A. Shokhin. Each of the authors of the submitted projects, in their own way saw the task of revival of the national style in architecture and the combination of the new building to the ancient monuments of Red Square[54]. In May 1875 was considered the best project presented under the slogan Motherland, developed by Vladimir Osipovich Sherwood. This project, in which was participated engineer A. A. Semenov, more fully meet the requirements of the academic commission. After some changes and improvements 8 August 1875 the project of these authors was approved by Emperor Alexander II.

The authors designed a huge massive volume, penetrated inside one large courtyard and two small, connected with the Kremlins passing. The building consisted of a basement, two basements and two Museums, which houses 39 exhibition halls. In part of the building facing Red Square, it was supposed to have a library, now there is room 40. When considering the internal layout of rooms and their design, architects and artists sought to show the whole process of historical development of Russia, because the Museum was to serve as a visual history of the main eras of the Russian state. Within this framework were developed and the structure of his plan, and each hall was dedicated to a certain historical period and was accordingly styled. The course of history is clearly reflected in the sequence of their arrangement, their size, the isolation, or, on the contrary, openness or connectedness.

The main barrel vault Grand entrance, decorated with monumental composition Family tree of Russian Sovereigns, the model was used for a similar family tree on the porch of the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Moscow Novospasskiy monastery. The base of the tree watering St. Prince Vladimir and St. Princess Olga, painted 68 includes a grand, full-length portraits, enclosed in ovals. The top is crowned Emperor Alexander III and Empress Maria Feodorovna. All the painting of the Grand entrance was made by the artel of artist F.G. Toropov. Masters worked encaustic, which possessed a high strength. It is worthy of note that the ovals with figures of rulers was created on canvas and then glued to the arch, and the paint layer of the background and branches of the tree was applied directly to the plaster ground.

Through the Grand Entrance of the stairs led to the rooms. In accordance with the concept of the VO. Sherwood Slavic hall was decorated hardwood floors, Byzantine decorated dome, and in the hall the time of Ivan IV the Terrible with the striking vaulted ceiling. The size of the rooms and their illumination also reflect the value of each stage of Russian history: the small rooms of the times of feudal fragmentation, the gloom in the room of the time of troubles, a very large hall of the Russian Empire. Isolated from other pagan and ancient Christian halls, both pouring into Kyiv with two outs in the Novgorod

and Vladimir-Suzdal. Located parallel to the two rows converge in the halls of Moscow with a purpose to never leave.

The interiors of the halls of a huge importance were the work of the artists, which preceded the historians F.T.Buslaev and S.M. Solovyev assignment: select, describe historical subjects worthy of depiction in painting and sculpture. Among them were: the invention of the Slavic alphabet St. Cyril and Methodius, the campaign Prince Oleg on Constantinople, the chrismation of Prince Vladimir in Korsun, and the edition Russkaia Pravda by Prince Yaroslav and others. In the hall Monarchic court (XVI-XVII centuries) in the centre was set an ornate carved and gilded tent an exact copy of the Royal place of Ivan IV the Terrible in the Annunciation Cathedral of the Kremlin. Besides the fact that this exhibit symbolized the greatness of the Royal power, it is directly linked to the Russian tent-shaped architecture of the XVI century, which found its expression in the Church of the Ascension in Kolomna, Pokrovsky Cathedral on Red Square and other monuments.

The interiorwas developed by V.O. Sherwood, was expensive and time-consuming, so it was replaced by projects, A.P.Popov, N.V.Nikitina, P.S.Boytsova, which were modest, but not fundamentally different from the original intent. Preserved under V.O. Sherwood decoration style of the rooms, the subjects of the murals and paintings, for example, a great panel Stone age by V.M. Vasnetsov in strict ascetic hall this period, Funeral of Rusa and Night sacrifice G.I. Semiradskiy in the hall, dedicated to the pagan period of the Slavic tribes, etc.[55]

To achieve archaeological accuracy in the design of the sculptor M.A. Chizhov was sent to Vladimir, Suzdal and etc. of the ancient town, of which he brought copies of documentary material used by the architect A.P. Popov in the decoration of the halls of the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. Vladimir hall is richly ornamented plaster prunt, representing an exact copy of prunt Dmitrovskiy Cathedral and the dome lamp of the hall is decorated with ornaments copied from the ornament of the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir.

Creating a peculiar historical environment, the artists and architects chose the most characteristic elements of the relevant period, making their work authentic, as if reconstructing the original. The architecture and decoration of the Museum halls, figuratively speaking, take on the task of the revival of the real habitat of the exhibits. The decoration of the rooms, along with physical monuments designed to reflect the orientation and regularity of the historical process. The application of each curl of the ornament of each pattern standing scientific research.

V.O. Sherwood aim to limitedly link the Museum building with the surrounding masterpieces of ancient architecture, to move away from classicism to a more picturesque mansions the construction of the composition. The main facade of the Historical Museum facing to Red Square, symmetric. With that each volume, total representing the building got its special architectural expression. In addition, entering into a composition with many uneven towers, crowned with the tents, the architect tried to match this decoration with the building plan, where internal divisions are somehow connected with the location of the towers.

20 August 1875 Emperor Alexander II together with his cousins the heir to the English throne Edward VII and Prince Wilhelm of Prussia in the presence of the city authorities and the clergy laid the foundation of the building of the Historical Museum three symbolic stone, in the autumn of the same year the foundation was laid. By 1879, building frame assembly in general, on both sides of the building under construction was

formed alley to the Red Square, one of them is the famous resurrection (Iversk) Gatese of Kitay-gorod (1680) with the chapel of the Iversk Icon of the Mother of God.

The Historical Museum is owned at the same time to Red Square, and to complex of squares outside of the Kremlin walls and Kitay-gorod, becoming the most important urban element in the center of Moscow.

In 1879 the construction of the Museum was interrupted due to the lack of financing and resumed only in 1881 after the Tsars decree on acceptance of the building in to the Treasury. Control over the construction of the building was carried out by the Moscow chamber of control. The documents relating to its activities are stored in the Central state archive of Moscow; in these documents, particular the question about the organization of the Building Commission and the presentation to her of the rights available to loans, contracts, etc.[56] Moscow chamber of control has controlled the account for use in the case of labor and materials. The Construction Committee included I.E. Zabelin, N.V. Sultanov, D.N. Anuchin, VI. Sizov, etc. Uvarov invited the Moscow architect A.P. Popov, which has developed projects of artistic design rooms and completed the construction of the building, instead ofV.O. Sherwood, and to help engineer A.A. Semenov A.S.

A.S. Uvarov and A.P. Popov in the resolution of architectural space were based on the principle of citation of outstanding elements of the decoration of ancient monuments, in particular, the Assumption Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.

In 1881 the Museum was given the new name Imperial Russian historical Museum, and on May 27, 1883, on the coronation day of Alexander III, the opening of the first of the eleven halls of the Museum.

In such a way, in the construction of the Museum building there is a certain division of labour, as noted later by several researchers. V.O. Sherwood owns the design of the facades, A.A. Semenov development of plans of all floors, and A.P. Popov creation of interiors. The decorations of the halls were participated V.M. Vasnetsov, I.K. Aivazovsky and other artists. Planning of the rooms was submitted to the logic of demonstration the most important stages of history of development of Russia.

In the process of exploitation of the Museum it was performed ongoing construction and repair work, continued the decoration of the rooms. So, in 1903 was completed the decoration of halls of Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible 18, 19, 20, hall of Tsars Fyodor Ivanovich and Boris Godunov 21, hall of the Time of Trouble 22. To enhance the security was arranged iron casement shutters of four windows of the second floor of the Museum, leaving the hall of the Emperor Alexander II on the roof of the building Resurrection gate and one two-field panelled iron door of the hall of Emperor Peter the Great in the audience.

Many collectors donated their collection of historical rarities of the city. A generous contribution to the Museum was made by Peter Ivanovich Shchukin, who in 1905 donated to the Museum his collections.

At the end of the XIX century, the Historical Museum building organically fits into the architectural ensemble of Red Square that allows considering it as an urban-planning dominant the main square of Moscow. North and South facades of the building are similar in nature, but South, facing to Red Square, is slightly higher and smaller due to the fact that its two main towers are more closely spaced and emphasize the Central axis of the construction.

Facade of the building created in the Russian style. The towers are decorated by the drawings of A.P. Popov. For purposes to interact with the environment Red Square appeared the ensign (standard), like the ensign on the Kremlin towers and the entrance of the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, as well as double-headed eagles. Samples for the hanging of weights under the lintels of the windows and doors were the weights of the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed.

The grand entrance is located on the Red Square and leads into the main entrance. Both as the front door and adjoining entrance wooden tent the vestibule is decorated with carvings, borrowed from the Royal pew of Ivan the Terrible in the Assumption Cathedral.

In the side arches of the passage depicts the coats of arms of lands that became part of the Russian state, as well as the lion and the unicorn, taken from the book bindings of the XVIXVII centuries. Printing house and appeared on the Royal coat of arms.

The floor of the entrance is lined with slabs of red and white marble, modeled the set on the outside of the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed. The lower wall under the pillars is decorated with hollows and incised semicircular columns, a yellow marble, made by the example of the porch of the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed.

Cornices, architraves, mosaic floors of exhibition halls stylistically reproduced the details of the architectural decorations represent eras.

Against the main entrance is a staircase on both sides of which the pedestal of red marble placed bronze lions (Acad. S.I. Ivanov, A.M. Postnikov), made by the example as the Red porch of the Palace of Facets.

At the bottom of the stairs, on the middle ledge of the wall plate is made with the chronicle of the Museum, imitating the writings of the XVI century. Located above the railing, against the main entrance to the halls made by M.A. Postnikov on the model grid marquee over the robe of Jesus, brought to Moscow in 1625.

On the first platform, to the right and to the left, go up the stairs leading to the upper passages, which surrounding walls on three sides.

On the top pass seven doors, of which three on the sides and one in the middle. All doors are finished in the style of the XVI century white stone with oak casements, iron hinges and locks of the twentieth century.

Historical and cultural value of the architectural ensemble of Red Square in Moscow is largely responsible for unique in world practice, the reconstruction of the center of the ancient capital in the national spirit. Design and construction of the building of the Historical Museum, according to many historians and art historians, was a landmark event in Russian architecture and the artistic culture of the late XIX century.

Historical Museum opened its doors to the wide audience June 2, 1883. Before entering inside, visitors admired the exterior of the building, its constructive solution. The material and texture of the main architects and builders are not inadvertently selected elegant red brick

In the project summary of the Historical Museum V.O. Sherwood has formulated the compositional principles of the formation of the Russian style, among which the following are fundamental: the building, consisting of several separated height and position of the parts must represent a single entity; the character of the tower a distinctive feature of Russian buildings; connectivity group parts; mould resistance; shapes, accented by projections of cornices, belts, shape of the roof, a variety of general lines of the facades and its parts. Guided by these principles, architect V.O. Sherwood


Russian artistic culture of the second half of the XIX century. M., 1991. P. 156.

and engineer A.A. Semenov created the architectural monument to the glory of the Russian people[57]. Used on the facades of the tents, headdresses, pants, lockers, and other items copied parts of Russian beautification of XVII century. Grand staircase guarded by lions with shields decorated with emblems of the Emperor Alexander II, where was founded the Museum and Alexander III, were the construction of the building was finished. The vertical volumes of the Museum echo the towers of the Kremlin and domes of the Pokrovsky Cathedral, which enriches the architectural ensemble of Red Square.

For more than a one century history, the Museum has meet all sort of: October 27 (November 9), 1917, in front of him was a battle of the revolutionary soldiers with the cadets. In 19361937, in preparation for the celebrations dedicated to the 20th Anniversary of the October revolution, the then government ordered the destruction of painting the Grand entrance, she disappeared under a layer of whitewash over more than half a century, then destroyed the original decoration of the halls from Kievan Rus to the Troubles time, and from the towers of the building were removed the doubleheaded eagle, heraldic lions and unicorns. Removed statues of lions, holding in the paws shields with the monograms of the emperors Alexander II and Alexander III. At the same time removed a memorial plaque with dates of the start of construction of the Museum and its completion. To the 800 Anniversary of Moscow (1947) work was carried out on the external restoration of the building.

In the 1950s the architect A.K. Burov restored the interiors of some rooms in accordance with the subject of placed in their sections of the exhibitions.

On 1 August 1986, the State Historical Museum (SHM) was closed for major repairs and restoration that lasted over 16 years. It is noteworthy that this happened in exactly 111 years after the foundation of the building. Serious work was done to rebuild the foundation. The scope of work was very wide: strengthened the foundation of the building cracked, and were put to test every inch of walls, ceilings, repaired the roof, in the halls of the restored painting, stone-masons stone by stone laid erased from time tile floors. There was a complete replacement of structures, degraded communications, and electrical wiring. In the old building were the most modern air-conditioning system, radio and telecommunications, firefighting equipment, management of engineering services. The work involved a construction organization. The building of the Museum in different years was examined Mosgorgeotrest, NIIOSP, KCPKS-MISI, MGSU, NIKSC RAN. There was ample material describing the condition of the building and flowing at its base engineering-geological and hydrogeological processes. Scientists have studied the design features of the building and foundations in different parts of the world. Accumulated observation data for rainfall, deformations and set some trends of their development in time. However, to compile and analyze the results of these works is almost impossible due to the fact that studies different organizations at different time periods was carried out on the local programs that are not linked among themselves.

A comprehensive engineering survey conducted by a specialized company REAL, gave positive results.

At the same time, works was carried out on restoration of painting the Grand entrance, which was carried out by the artists of Experimental special scientific

and restoration atelier under the supervising of A.M. Zamoshina. After examining old photos available documentary material, technique of painting of the artel of F.G. Toropov, modern restorers have recreated the composition in its original form.

In the Museum carried out engineering work to adapt the building to modern requirements of Museum storage and exhibiting. The restorers set in a part lost details of interior, make a disclosure on whiten painting[58].

Since 1997, consistently open the restored halls, so its 130th Anniversary in 2002 the Museum celebrated in her own home. To this date there was an exhibition under the symbolic name Enter to the history.

In 2014-2015, the staff of the Restoration Company has developed a new research design documentation for repair and restoration work on cultural heritage State Historical Museum. Developed the project helped to restore the lost fragments of the Museum building, and also to undertake a comprehensive restoration of the Museum quarter, clearing out basements and remove cultural layer. In the course of these works was discovered white-stone embankment of the river Neglinka with the supports of bridges that are planned to preserve in the surviving species. The Museum quarter includes the complex of buildings between the Square of the Revolution, Voskresenskiy Passage and Nikolskaya Street.

In 2015, specialists of the Institute Spetsproektrestavratsiya has developed guidelines for restoration of mosaic and tile floors in the interiors of the Main building of the Historical Museum.

Upon completing of all repair and restoration works of the turn of XXXXI centuries Historical Museum opened its halls to discover the form in which it was designed in the late XIX early XX centuries. Currently, the Museum continues to be a sample of the museum building and indisputable beautification of the Red Square of the capital.

Upper strip malls building of GUM

In the ensemble of Red Square of Moscow opposite the Kremlin wall in 18891894 years was built the Upper strip malls by the architect A.N. Pomerantsev. The facade of this building, as a appearance of the Historical Museum, was contrary to the modern type of that time structure. The problem was that the architects sought artificially to create a national style as a frontal, ignoring the law of the architecture the unity of form and content. In these buildings was an attempt to reconcile the contraries, but over the past century, they are firmly fit into the image of the city and Red Square, and today already hard to imagine the capital without these facilities.

An important feature of the construction of the Upper strip malls was the introduction to the process of a number of innovations, characteristic for the architecture of XIXXX centuries. For the first time in Russia in the floor over the three trade lines were installed

Building of Upper strip malls (at present time GUM)

cylindrical glass vaults on metal structures, designed by talented engineers V.G. Shukhov[59] and A.F. Loleyt.

Trading space of the Upper strip malls in the main volume of the passage was located on two floors and attic. The width of the passage at the bottom was 6.5 meters, and the upper gallery balconies were a wide terrace, which was connected by reinforced concrete bridges. In the Upper strip malls were taken into account many years of experience in the construction of the Russian passages, as a socio-commercial institutions created rational planning and functional structure: the maximum usage of the area, a giant glass domes provided the illumination of the shops and passages, etc. Over the central part of the architect was given two towers, repeating completion of the Historical Museum. So, a huge building of three long passages (over 1000 stores), spread

to a whole block facades took to the streets, and the main (longitudinal) facade, facing Red Square. This is reflected in internal design: cross-links formed three through-passages which provides access from the square and Vetoshny row and fixed strong architectural accents. Small scale form massive volume emphasizes his minor role in the ensemble, subordinate to the Kremlin walls and towers. At the same time, the use of the motifs of the walls and towers of the Kremlin in the artistic image of the building, allowed to seamlessly fit into the ensemble of Red Square. It comes out facade length 214,64 meter central three-storey part of the shopping malls put on the transverse axis square[60]. Verticals of the building also combine with towers of Historical Museum and volumes of towers of the Iversk Gates, the Kazan and Pokrovsky Cathedrals. Contemporaries considered the Upper strip malls are one of the largest, progressive technical and process points of view in Europe structures.

The official groundbreaking ceremony for the new building took place on 21 May 1890. Maximum intensity of construction works was reached in 1891, when the building was involved to 3 thousand workers. The Grand opening of the Upper strip malls took place on 2 December 1893, although the finishing work is partially continued until 1896.

In 1923, the building was opened State universal store (GUM). In 19341936, the GUM bui Idi ng was set to be demol ished, n its place I plan ned to put a huge constructivist construction is the building of peoples Commissariat of heavy industry, fortunately, this did not happen. In 1952-1953 was carried out restoration of the building, after which he resumed the work of the State general store. In the 1970s, began a restoration which was completed only in 1985. In 1990, the GUM was corporatized, and in 1992 privatized, though it retained its former name.In 19972001 and in 20112012 was held piecemeal restoration work on the facades, entrance halls, private commercial buildings, which met the builders of the architect-restorer M.B. Kanaev under the supervising of G.V. Mudrov. During the restoration the building was illuminated with electric lamps lines accentuate the exterior architectural elements of the facade and the shade picture of the building.

Mausoleum of V.L Lenin

Architectural and artistic completion of the Red Square received after creation near the Senate tower of the Kremlin Mausoleum of V.I. Lenina, which stressed the Central transverse axis of the square. History of its creation is directly connected with the Soviet period. After death ofV.I. Lenin the idea, proposed by the leaders of the Communist party and the Soviet state, about the construction on the Red Square eternal monumental civic buildings table-tomb of the leader of the proletariat has put the engineers and builders in a difficult position. In the Soviet state has changed the understanding of culture and the longevity of the architectural object, although initially it was proposed to build a Mausoleum in the purpose to say goodbye to a beloved leader. A temporary wooden Mausoleum was designed and built in two days (25-27 January 1924). It was simple and laconic in its form. The proportions and division of the parts of the project divided by the figure of the so-called Egyptian triangle with the ratio 3x4x5 m. the Volume of the table-tomb had a stepped top.

Mausoleum of V.I. Lenin

A few months Mausoleum was reconstructed and replaced with a second temporary (1924), a more thorough. It is lined with varnished oak planks of stained black oak all horizontal thrust, door panels, doors and pillars. Has been carefully worked details to the wood sheathing, the elements of their attachment[61].

In 1925 was announce a competition for the construction of the Mausoleum, which received 117 projects (sculpture, building in the form of a five-pointed star, the image of a globe, etc.). In the 1930s according to project of architect A.V. Shchusev again created the third majestic, solemn and austere Mausoleum of reinforced concrete with brick infill

The building of the Mausoleum by the project of A.V. Schusev in proportion to the surrounding space: the volume of construction increased in comparison with wood, it is one third the height of the Senate tower and one-sixth of the height of the Spasskaya tower. More monumental become all forms. Layering and a pyramidal silhouette, coming from ancient traditions combined with expressive laconism.

Remarkable using of building material with color of national mourning: red granite and black labradorite stone. Preliminary A.V. Shchusev exposed wooden model 1/4 part of the Mausoleum in full size and strengthened the third from the top step. The structure has become more complex, there was the intense rhythm of articulation, reinforcing its architectural merits. At the top of the Mausoleum on 36 squares in cross-section purlin post mounted plate of the Karelian red quartzite, above the entrance was placed

the largest monolith of black labradorite stone weighing about 60 tons[62]. Over the main portal the attic, with simple, encrusted with deep red porphyry inscription LENIN.

The mourning hall has a cubic shape with a stepped ceiling, corresponding to the shape of the structure. The wall of the mourning hall lined with polished labradorite stone black and gray colors. At the perimeter of the hall is a zigzag ribbon of glazes purpurin bright red banner the symbol of the Soviet era. The large monolith of labradorite stone (20 ton) used for the pedestal for sarcophagus with the body of V.I. Lenin. Total for Mausoleum was used 2,900 square metre of polished stone.

Rather small in size, the Mausoleum became the main building of the Red Square of socialistic Moscow. Architect A.V. Shchusev decided enormously challenging task and created a truly modern work, the appearance of which is objectively demanded to reconstruct the Red Square. Along the Kremlin walls on the sides of the Mausoleum appeared guest tribunes for 10 thousand people. Monument to Minin and Pozharsky established in 1818 by sculptor I.P. Martos at the Upper strip malls was moved to the Pokrovsky Cathedral (Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed). In 1929 it was demolished Resurrection gate and the cobblestone surface of the square in 1931 was replaced with block stone.

Outstanding architectural structure of small volume (5800 cu. m.) of five differences in height stepping, with a height of 12 m, with a length of 24 m facade of the Mausoleum is seamlessly merged with the real surrounding space of the ensemble of red square, as an integral architectural part of the revolutionary necropolis near the Kremlin wall.

During firsts days of the Great Patriotic War urgent measures were taken for the preservation of monuments of the Moscow Kremlin and Red Square. Began in the spirit of time with the Mausoleum. The commandant of the Kremlin N.K. Spiridonov recollected: we were faced with a task: how to protect the Mausoleum of V.I. Lenina from the fascist bombs? On the advice of artists and architects headed by F.F. Fedorov and B.N. Iofan we fall back upon to a camouflage. Got 1500 metre of huckabuck and in two or three days tailored and sewing a house painted on it doors and windows, then pulled the fabric over the frame, built around the table-tomb of Lenin... (the body of Lenin was evacuated to the Ural in July 1941, and in April 1945 returned to Moscow). At the same time switch off the light and covers the stars on the Kremlin towers, covered resistant paints heads of churches and cathedrals, painted on the wall of the Kremlin from the Red Square windows and doors. Noticeable landmark bend of the Moscow River service of camouflage of the Moscow City Council fill of barges and float with false structures. From above the region of historical Kremlin began to seem a jumble of small, old buildings. Chiming clock become silent on the Spasskaya tower.... In 1944, the face of the Mausoleum was change: over the main entrance was built by the central government platform. In 19461947, was carried out construction of permanent grandstands for guests.

During the restoration in the 1970s, the Mausoleum equipped with the latest instruments and apparatus for management of all engineering systems, strengthened construction and replaced more than 12 thousand marble blocks. Old guest tribunes were

replaced with new. In 1973 inside the Mausoleum was installed updated the bullet-proof sarcophagus (sculptor N.B. Tomskiy, chief structural engineer N.A. Myzin)[63].

In 1983 scientists find out that a multiton brick-granitical cube subsidence on its Southeast corner. As a result of using of installed on Red Square guest stands occurred sedimentary deformation shifts and cracks in a granite covering of the building of the Mausoleum, in connection with which was hurt major damage. In 2005, by specialists of the Institute Spetsproektrestavratsiya was carried out all the necessary restoration work of the building of the Mausoleum of V.I. Lenin. In 2010 the foundation was fastened, carried out seal of outside seams of the Mausoleum. In 2012 experts of the company Ateks FSO Russia, make a research and came to the conclusion that it is urgent to rectify the careen of the foundation and restore the waterproofing of the complex, which was done.

The last reconstruction of the Mausoleum on the Red Square was made in 2013. To strengthen the foundation around solid slabs, on which stands the building, drilled 350 holes, which under the pressure of the pumped concrete. During the restoration, which lasted eight months, was a fortified foundation, repeated seal the outside seams of the Mausoleum. Restored historic lighting of building and laid granite slabs on pathways around him.

1.3. Novodevichy Convent

The ancient Moscow was surrounded by monasteries the watchmen, who stood on the approaches to the city: Danilov (1282), Andronikov (1360), Simonov (1379), Novospassky (1462), Novodevichy (1524), Donskoy (1532). Due to alterations and reconstructions extant the best preserved monasteries buildings of a later period, starting from the XVI century. The unique architectural ensemble of Novodevichy Convent formed in the XVI XVII centuries.

The Novodevichy Convent was founded in 1524 by Prince Vasily III (15051533. the period of government) in honor of the victory over the Lithuanians in 1514, and the return of the ancient city Smolensk to Russia.

One of the oldest and largest of the building of the monastery Smolensky Cathedral (1524 1525), it started with the creation of the architectural ensemble of the monastery. The Cathedral, which is presents a magnificent cubic volume of six-pillars five-domed Church with a capacious, roomy interior space, has a length of 39 m, width 32 m, height 45 m .The Cathedrals walls are dissected by broad, on the East and West sides into three parts, on the Northern and Southern sides by four, and come to an end by arched gable. Apses of the Cathedral are decorated by the arcaded frieze. The construction of the Cathedral lasted only 14 months and was completed by 28 July 1525, i.e. to the Dedication day.

The name of the architect is unknown. The architect (according to legend is Alevisio Nivi) took as a sample of Assumption and Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. But as against the facade of the Archangel Cathedral, the facade in his length divided into four parts, not five. From the cathedrals of the Kremlin, Smolensk Cathedral is different by radius of the arched gable. The architect changed the ratio of the width and height of the walls, already put the head, giving the dynamism of the Smolensk Cathedral. At the base of the castle was established a high vaulted basement with pillars of white stone.

Novodevichy Convent. Overall view

The overall silhouette of the building has a stepped shape. Raised on a high basement, Cathedral crowned by a mighty expressive silhouette heads that provided him with the solemnity and consistent with a triumphal memorial nature of his appointment[64].

Built of brick Smolensky Cathedral is decorated with white stone detail (capitals, profiles, cornices, rods, and window casings). Out of white stone made three different long-range portals. On three sides the Cathedral is surrounded by a wide covered gallery, on which there were side chapels, these chapels in the XVII century was arranged domed decorative buildups. In the middle building is made of a double row of windows which is arranged in zigzag order. The exterior features and the interior of Smolensky Cathedral majestic. Up to a powerful arch covering is going six cross vaults rise in terms of pillars, divided in height into three parts. This is visually increasing the height of the temple slotlike windows of the drums heads.

At the same time with Smolensky Cathedral was built wooden cells, office rooms, wooden walls and towers. To the construction of the monastery were attracted by highly skilled master builders. The Novodevichy Convent represented the national revival by united of the state and strengthening of the Orthodox Church. News of Smolensky Cathedral quickly spread through all the Russian principalities.

During the time of Boris Godunov (15981605 the time of government) the monastery survived the second phase of the revivification. The walls, the arches, the pillars of the Smolensky Cathedral was painted with frescoes, which reflect the history of icons, the ideas of Church and state of the period of uniting the Russian lands and the formation of a centralized state. Skillfully used by the artists of architecture, compositescale organizing of murals painting is remarkable. Painting was resumed in 1666, repeatedly later restored. In 1929, 1939, 1940, 1953, to the part of affected from the time of the frescoes have been restored. In 1685 Russian wood-carvers under the direction of O. Andreev and K. Mikhailov has created a five-tiered iconostasis with 84 wooden

Smolensky Cathedral of the Novodevichy convent

columns and gilded, treated with a vegetative ornament. On the iconostasis, the iconpainters worked under the leadership of F. Zubov[65].

Standing on a bend of the Moscow River with a wide field of view, in the XVII century, the monastery is protected by strong fortified stone wall with a length of 900 m and a height of 11 m, thick of 3 m. He was an important part in the defensive belt of Moscow. Walls with battlements had a gallery for the top fight, loopholes for the middle and underpick battles that in construction type and constructive system of fortification corresponds with the sample of the walls and towers of the Moscow Kremlin.

Formed by this time the general plan of the Novodevichy Convent irregular pentagon, limiting the total area of 5 hectares. 12 towers located on the perimeter of the walls that formed a trapezoid with non-parallel side facing to the steep slope of the Moscow River. At the corners of a trapezoid dominate strongly pushed forward relative to the plane of the walls round towers: Nikolskaya, Chebotarnaya, Setunskaya, Naprudnaya. Between them stood eight square towers: Lopukhinskaya, Tsaritsynskaya, losifovskaya, Shvalnaya, Pokrovskaya, Predtechenskaya, Zatrapeznaya, Savvinskaya. From the North was built a powerful gate with barbican church of the Protection of the Blessed Virgin. In Nikolskaya tower before 1812 was situated the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker.

The oldest after the Smolensky Cathedral at the territory of Novodevichy Convent the Church of St. Ambrose of Milan (the end of XVI century) with the monastery canteen. Built of white stone, the Church was rebuilt several times, particularly in the XVII century was rebuild the arches. South-westerly of the Smolensky Cathedral in 1598 to a one-story building from the Eastern side built a two-story tower for Princess Irina, the widow of Tsar Fedor Ivanovich and sister of Boris Godunov, the so-called Irinas chamber.

Golden age of the monastery was reached in the years of the Regency of Sophia (16821689, under Peter I rule). In 1680s harsh walls of the fortress builders have decorated the lush finish with white stone details: arches, parapets, and battlements on the walls of the swallow tails (the battlements), etc. in the style of Moscow Baroque. Over the North gate erected five-domed six-tier with shells instead of arched gable the Church of the Transfiguration (blessed on 5 of August, 1688). At this time, became the main North gate, facing Prechistenskaya road leading to the Kremlin. South gate with Church of the Intercession was rebuilt. To the East of the gate in 1682-1685 was built a two-story building with columns and a large balcony level of the arcade of the Church of the Intercession and galleries of the fortress wall. In 1685-1687 to the West from Smolensky Cathedral was built a stone Trapeznaya chamber long one-storey building with a high basement. The hall of Trapeznaya is ample the area is 393 m[66] (the length is 26,2 m, width is 15 m, height is 9 m). Built without supporting pillars, it was at that time a miracle of construction engineering. Today the Trapeznaya is one of the few surviving buildings of the civil nature of the end of the XVII century, and it is not without interest for researchers of the history of architecture. At the end of the XVII century, the Trapeznaya chamber close put a huge cube, and the octagon drum, completed a small onion dome of the Assumption Church.

In 1690, in the territory of monastery was completed the construction of the majestic bell tower with decorations of white stone, original at each of the five tiers. According to the original plan, the bell tower was to consist of eight tiers and exceed the bellcote of Ivan the Great. However, during Sophia govern was build only five tier, the six tier is completed already during the reign of Peter I (16821725 the period govern), thus, bell climbed up to 72 meters. Through the third and fourth tiers placed a belfry with 6200 pound bell cast by Ivan Motorin. In the middle tier build the Church of St. John the Theologian, below the first tier of the reverend Barlaam and Joseph tzarevitch.

Decorative details of white stone decorations stand out against the red walls. Exquisite harmony and lightness achieved by the skillful distribution of structures of building. This is one of the best bells of the end of the XVII century not only in Russia but also in Europe. Architects (presumably O. Startsev, Y. Bukhvostov) set the bell tower at the Smolensky Cathedral that allowed you to see the unique beauty of the panorama.

Allocated large funds for the construction has also helped to build the monks cells, hospital, various buildings of office appointment, renovate again the walls and towers.

All buildings step by step were bringing in to a total architectural style of Moscow Baroque. In such a way was created remarkable in its unity, the majestic architectural ensemble of great skill and taste.

The fire of 1796 has caused significant damage to the Novodevichy Convent. Restoration and repair work was carried out under the supervision of the architect M.F. Kazakov (1738-1812), due to his talent and efforts of builders, the Novodevichy Convent was updated with no significant changes with the preservation of traditions of architecture ofthe Moscow Baroque. In the XIX century after the expulsion of Napoleons troops was carried out the restoration and renovation of buildings of the monastery. The open gallery was removed promenade, instead of it was made ponderous way through1. In the middle of the XIX century to the North of the bell tower was built a two-storey house by merchants Filatievy the school for girls.

In 1890-1900 was conducted a new work on the restoration of the buildings of the monastery (architects S.K. Rodionov, I.P. Mashkov). Was carried out the restoration of

the Smolensky Cathedral, modified the form of the roof coverage, disclosed the upper windows of the drum of the Central dome, to windows of the main volume returned to its original size and shape, remake the gallery and the porch of the Cathedral, the fresco painting clear from the oil recording[67].

In the territory of Novodevichy monastery buried famous Russian scientists, writers, public persons. The monastery as the place ceased to exist at the beginning of 1920, and in 1922 in it was opened a Museum, which in 1934 became a branch of the State Historical Museum.

In 1955 in the Novodevichy Convent specialists of the Central scientific restoration design ateliers (CSRDA) under the direction of G.A. Makarov began the restoration works. It made a number of important historical and architectural discoveries specified the original image of the structures of fortress and the time of its construction. Careful field studies of masonry allowed dating them to 1680s. The first objects of the restoration were the walls and towers. It was found that the tower originally ended with tents outside and had a polychrome painting, made by masters of the Armoury Chamber. Repairs of the XV1II-XIX centuries have partially distorted the battlements, crests and upper openwork parapet of the towers.

In the process of repairing of bricks facing, which had the destruction of more than 45 cm, replaced with a new, smaller loss was filled with a special mortars. Crests of the towers with traces of re-laying hold out for preserving the existing forms, complementing the loss. On the towers are deaf parapets in the openings of the upper tier were replaced with white stone balusters through the preserved sample. White stone pinnacles above the pilasters of the towers and the crests were replaced with new white stone plates with the specification of their form and the use of old parts. On the towers repaired white stone finishing on the top layer. In the dip-slope of the filled-in panel of the upper tier G.A. Makarov found laid out the holes for the bolts, shields, which has set aside, and the ledge wall behind the crests for laying the bottom trim of the tent. On the towers were restored brick and white stone decoration. Near the Chebotarnaya and Setunskaya towers on the place of the late on windows were restored battlements with embrasures.

During the restoration of the crest wall it was decided to preserve the historical form and the masonry that belonged to a different time. To implementation of this methodological approach was carried out complex engineering activities to strengthen them. On the curtain wall between Shvalnaya and Chebotarnaya towers the crests for the avoidance of relaying retained in an inclined position. Under each crest bring a pair of reinforced concrete beams (engineer N.S. Makolov). The inclined crest of the XVII century on the fence between Setunskaya and Irininskaya towers could turn into a vertical position (engineer L.A. Kaplin). These measures helped to avoid the impression of modern replica, occurring after a restoration.

During the inspection of Lopukhinskaya of the tower were found the vestiges of ancient doors with polychrome painting. Based on in-depth archival research G.A. Makarov dated it by 16871697. The studding of paintings found that the upper part of the towers was painted like brick, the underside like a diamond-pointed rustication. Details of towers and curtain wall of the fortress walls were originally painted white. Of the three variants of painting of towers, suggested by G.A. Makarov, was approved variant of painting the upper part of the towers in two colors: the walls were red, the decor white.

In 19591964 for marksman guard-houses near the Nikolskaya, Naprudnaya and Chebotarnaya towers was back the architectural shape of the end of the XVII century.

According to the natural vestiges was restored modest facade decoration, restored the ancient window and door openings, floors. Near the two storey chambers of Setunskaya tower was reconstructed separate collapsed vaults of the second floor, is strictly documented during research initial drawing of facades from the crowning cornice pattern cornice Irininskaya chamber and porch.

In the Smolensky Cathedral in the 1970s, was replaced the cover of domes and roofs, retaining shape and color. Works on the facades wore repair and restoration character with the renovation of masonry and granular restoration of individual architectural forms. During the works was made a repair of white stone and brick profiles of pilasters, dilapidated places in the archivolt arched gables, profiles of the quadrangular frame walls and apses. In the basement were restored revealed in the nature of the window of the XVI century, retaining some of the windows in the forms of the XVII century. Was completed the whitewash facades and painting of the roofs of the Cathedral, preserving the colors. During the studies of the Cathedral by G.A. Makarov was found fragments of the four chapels of the XVI century, standing at the corners of the quadrangle. Therefrom on the facades preserved remains of the walls, vaults and indent from the abutting joint of the roofs. Was repaired the facades of the galleries and porches with delicate restoration of the profiles and highlighting later laying of arched openings on the South side[68].

In 1979 G.A. Makarov developed the project of restoration of the Ambrose Church with a monastery canteen. Research of the author of the project denied early dating of the monument of the XVI century and found that the Church was built in the 1680s, and its initial end redone during the repair of the I.F. Michurin in the 1st half of the XVIII century. Taking in account that the extant fragments of the original complete minor and do not give a complete picture of its forms, it was decided to keep the roof in its current form. A similar decision was made in respect of the roofing of the monastery canteen, which originally ended with a turtle back arch, which served as the basis of white stone flake coating. During the works were restored drum head, architraves and portals, gilded crosses and valances. Windows and doorways of the XVII century restored according to original vestiges.

In the 1970s began a systematic work on the restoration of impersonal and rebuilt chambers of the monastery.

Restoration workbi in the monastery continued in the 1980s. Under the protection of the state, except the temple buildings located the following civil buildings: 14 divided parts of a fortress wall of XVIXVII centuries; towers: Nikolskaya northeast, losafovskaya foursquare on the East wall, Shvalnaya foursquare on the East wall, Chebotarnaya circular on the South-East, Pokrovskaya foursquare on the South wall, Predtechenskaya foursquare on the South wall, Setunskaya circular southwestern, Zatrapeznaya foursquare on the West wall, Naprudnaya circular the North-West, Lopukhinskaya foursquare on the North wall, Tsaritsynskaya foursquare on the North wall; Prosfornia near the bell 16861688; Trapeznaya and the chambers of the Empress Irene of the XVIXVII centuries at the Church of Ambrose; the Chambers of the Princess Maria Alekseevna, 1680, the Chambers near the North gate (Lopukhinskiy bulk), end of the XVII century; Cells near the Shvalnaya tower, end of the XVII century; Pevcheskiy bulk, end of the XVI 1- VIII century, Kaznacheyskiye chambers of the XVII, XVIII centuries; Streletskaya guardroom near the Nikolskaya tower, end of the XVI early XVII centuries; a Hospital chambers, end of the XVII

century, Streletskaya guardroom near the Chebotarnaya tower, end of the XVI early XVII century; Streletskaya guardroom near the Setunskaya tower,end of the XVI early XVII centuries; Streletskaya guardroom near the Naprudnaya tower (the Chamber of the Princess Sophia) end of the XVI early XVIII century; Gatehouse near the North gate, XVII century; Outbuilding near the southern wall, XVII-XVIII centuries; Philarets school, 1815, 1878; the Chapel-mausoleum of the Volkonskie, the beginning of the XIX century; Gravestones on the territory of the monastery of XVI-XX centuries.

The studding of the building of Pevcheskie chambers of the early XVIII century began in 1961.The project of G.A. Makarov of 1963 provided for the preservation of the porches of 1783, the restoration of ancient planning with disassembly later partitions and restoration of an original drawing of facades from the original data. Inside the chambers which is lost arches, replaced the wooden floors with concrete. Restoration works was completed in 1981. During the work was strengthened the foundations of the Eastern portion of the barrel, made a roof with flue header and wooden porch of the North facade. On the facades of restored quarter window, installed window and door frames, lay floors. Housing adapted for the Museum expositions. In the study of Eastern chambers were found the foundations of the ancient and late furnaces with fragments of tiles.

During the restoration of the Prosphornaya chamber of the late XVII early XVIII centuries, adjacent to the fortress wall was dismantled late wooden superstructure, restored the window openings and mounted them in frames with picture frames chequered. The chamber was adapted for restoration workshops.

During the restoration of one-storey buildings of the Hospital chambers beginning of the XVIII century, with a wooden mezzanine and dormer windows of the XIX century, was developed three versions of the project (N.A. Lovkunas, N.S. Romanov), including the recovery forms of white stone of the roof. During the implementing of works was repaired the roof and the mezzanine, restored window and door openings.

Mariinsky chambers having, as shown by the research of N.S. Romanov and N.A. Lovkunas, three periods of construction, was restored in the version of the end of the XVIIXVIII centuries. During the work was made the renovation of walls and ceilings, facades completed the restoration of the original window and door openings, parapet of the gallery, columns and pedestals. The silhouette of the chambers with the little palace enriched the panorama of the monastery from the North side[69].

In JuneAugust 1995, were making works on conservation and restoration of carving and framing of the central iconostasis of the Smolensky Cathedral. During the restoration, there appeared the possibility of art historical study and description of the iconostasis, the wooden gilded carving of the end of the XVII century and earlier painted table the end of XVI century that represent horizontal bars shelves for setting icons in the iconostasis. The research of the iconostasis showed that the painting of tempion performed manually without the use of a stencil and that the basis of the pattern is floral motifs. Tempera painting of tempion preserved without later records and therefore is a bright example of ornamental painting of the XVI century. As a result of restoration works the iconostasis was cleaned from dust and dirt, behind a fortified plated.

In 2001 the architects N.S. Romanov and V.N. Mudrov has completed multi-year restoration work of the Smolensky Cathedral of the Novodevichy Convent. Damaged by hurricane in 1998 the heads fixed and stained in the colors that simulative tinned iron. The cross was restored keeping all genuine parts, gilded and installed at the same place: on the side of the heads by hand, on the center by helicopter. Around the Cathedral removed cultural layer, completed the restoration of part of the basement, restored the blind area of the XVII century. On the South facade of the quadrangle have revealed the remains of the ancient southern portal, made it to the careful fixation and executed a graphic reconstruction. The Union of the architects of Russia on the competition Zodchestvo marked the restoration of the Smolensky Cathedral by Golden diploma and Crystal Daedalus, which was first at the time presented to the architects-restorers. Next to the names of architects N.S. Romanov, V.N. Mudrova and engineer G.N. Rovinsky in diploma of 2001 in recognition of its contribution to the work entered and the name of Georgy Alekseevich Makarov. In 2004 ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent, as a masterpiece of Russian medieval architecture, was included in to the UNESCO list of world cultural and natural heritage.

In 2008 the Novodevichy Convent continued the planned restoration work. In particular, in the basement of Assumption Church, which was dismantled late partitions, spent repairing the brickwork resumed the painting of the facades of the Church of the Transfiguration, and part of the monastery walls and towers. In 2011 the Central scientific-restoration workshops developed the concept of a full-scale restoration of the ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent, landscaping, restoration of the monasterys necropolis. The ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent is included in the Federal target program Culture of Russia (2012-2018).

In 2013 the Novodevichy Convent is related to valuable objects of cultural heritage, but March 15, 2015 the bell tower there was a fire that burned down the scaffolding, was damaged the surface of the walls. At the present time according to the target programme for 20122018 in the Novodevichy Convent ongoing repair and restoration work, they are under the supervision of N.S. Romanov and I.D. Davydova. Restaurerede bell tower, Kaznacheyskie, Lopukhinskie and Setunskie chambers.

In 2016 were restored chambers of the Princess Maria Alekseevna, was recreate interior and exterior decorative painting, metal construction and roof[70]. Until the 2019 builders have to restore more than 40 objects of the Novodevichy Convent.

1.4. Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye

In the architectural ensemble of Kolomenskoye a special place occupies the unique monument of the old Moscow architecture, the Church of the Ascension, in 1994 object of UNESCO World historical and cultural heritage.

The first documentary mention about the Grand-Ducal, then Royal estate Kolomenskoye appeared in testaments letters missive of XIVXVI centuries, and the history of the village is connected with important events of Russian life (revolt led by Ivan Bolotnikov, the massacre of Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich Romanov with participantbi of the copper revolt 1662, etc.).

The Church of the Ascension was laid on the orders of Grand Prince Vasiliy III in 1530 in commemoration of the birth of his son, Ivan (future Ivan IV the Terrible) and the Church was consecrated in 1532. The Church of the Ascension was built on the heugh

of the Moscow River, according to its position it dominates the valley, as located at the same height as the cathedrals of the Moscow Kremlin.

The Church of the Ascension, unlike other churches, has no altar apse. Many windows of basement, of the quadrangle and the tent resemble the battlements of the fortress towers. Under the cross there is a small room where sentinel could be monitored.

Stay from the traditional Byzantine cross-domed Church, the architects using a kind of compositional constructive technique, created a new type of stone tent-shaped buildings. Church of the Ascension was the first surviving of this type of churches and the most perfect, amazing plasticity of the architectural forms.

The pillar of Kolomna Church steadily goes up, its sprawling galleries, like the roots, firmly connect it with the land from which he draws the power of his takeoff1.

Axonometric plane of the Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye (architect V.N. Podkluchnikov) gives an idea about the structural features of the building, the original artistic decision of the facades, the synergies of the constructive and artistic principles2.

In plan the building is a Greek cross. Pillar-shaped volume has no internal supports. The full weight of the Church rests on a solid white stone foundation depth 9 m, which has oak piles3.

Constructional building consists of icosahedral pillar set on a high basement. The pillar base is a massive rectangular with several protruding porches. At the quadrangle right octagon, the walls of which goes high pyramidal tent, crowned by a small cupola. The side faces of the quadrangle and the octagon are decorated in the form of pilasters, decorated with white stone capitals and bases. Church of the Ascension is unusual for temples of stone form. In composition, the monument is consonant with ancient wooden buildings. Russian and Italian masters participated in finishing works during the construction of the Church.

Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye

  • 1 Voronin N.N. History of architecture. M., 1981. P. 115.
  • 2 Museum of architecture A.V. Schusev. M., 1982. P. 72.
  • 3 Kolomenskoye / text M. Gra, B. Giromskiy. M., 1971. P. 103.

The religious application of building plays a pivotal role. The height of the Church 62 m, the walls are built of white stone bricks huge thickness of 2.53 m, and the interior space small.

The Church was built as a monument, embodied in stone the strength and power of Moscow state. That Church is good of height, beauty, which was never before in Russia said about her Russian chronicler[71].

The feeling of lightness is given to heavy building by using of decorative elements. On all of the walls of the quadrangle are straight lined with decorative arrows. Above, there are three rows of different height of the headdress. They all had a single point of support the capitals of the pilasters of the quadrangl. Achieved the image of the step transition from the walls of the quadrangle to an octagon.

Above at the base of the tent was placed a row of small corbel arches. The top face of the tent end with a cornice, on which stood a small corbel arch.

Was obtained the solid volume (from the base of the quadrangular frame to the completion of the tent) and emphasized the height of the building.

The Church is a dynamic in shape. Impressive building of the Church, with four facades surrounded by a gallery of arcades with stairs which is going up. On the East side of the gallery ambulatory-ries is located a throne. The interior of the Church is holistic artistic image. It is a small area (8,5x8,5 m) when the height of the facades is rather high (41 m). It is possible that the Church was created for overlooking from the outside.

The corners of quadrangular frame are decorated by pilasters which are the similar to outdoor, with capitals decorated with tree leaves acanthus. Pilasters limit the space, give it harmonisation and completion. Interior lighting is enhanced by the special windows. By windows cuted quadrangle, octagon and tent.

The famous French composer G. Berlioz, who visited Kolomenskoye in the XIX century, called the Church of the Ascension miracle of miracles and noted the harmony of the beauty of completed forms.

In General, the architectural ensemble of the Kolomenskoye village was formed in the XVII century, by this time was built the Church of the Ascension and of John the Baptist, St. George bell tower, and in the XVII century wooden Palace of Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich, driveway opening with the clock tower, the Decrees and Colonels chamber, Vodovzvodnaya tower, a Sitniy yard, the Kazan Church. But in spite of the variety of buildings and structures, the main attraction of the ensemble was and stays the Church of the Ascension

In 18661867 was completed the repairs of the Church of the Ascension, architect. N.A. Shokhin made the first attempt of historical and architectural assessment of the Church, but hereby erroneously attributed the second tier of galleries to the later additional buildings. During the restoration in the XIX century the Church floor was laid with square stone tiles, instead of the original red and black triangular ceramic stacked envelope. In the altar part of Church the floor of the XVII century was open, set in type herring-bone made from the brick. Finded by restorers the vestiges of plaster and whitewash of the XVI century confirmed the supposition about the original white color of the Church. In the end of XIX beginning of XX centuries the walls of the Church was renewed.

In 1914-1916 restoration works was done on the monument. Architect B.N. Zasypkin carried out the archaeological exploration of the territory, made the measurements of

the foundations of the monuments, fortification of parts and labor. He fined important architectural detail of the Church: the northern portal and the Royal pew. The tent was newly re-lined, specially made, large size bricks with stamps of 1914 year.

In 1918 the architectural monuments of Kolomna was announced a national treasure, in 1922 was taken under state protection, at the same time there was established a branch of the Historical Museum and carried out considerable restoration work[72].

I n 1930 the measurements ofthe Church of the Ascension was made by P. D. Baranovsky. He moved to Kolomenskoye a number of wooden buildings of XVIIXVIII centuries: the towers of the Karelian fortress, house of Peter I from Arkhangelsk, Mead brewery from the village of Preobrazhenskoye and the tower of Bratsk prison.

In 19721982 serious study of the monument were made by N.N. Sveshnikov, A.P. Kudryavtsev, S.A. Gavrilov. Restoration in complex of the Church of the Ascension in Kolomenskoye was conducted in 20042007. The main task of specialists, restorers and builders was to maintain the original image of the building. Was done the laboratory research of the chemical composition of the masonry. Due to the high humidity severely damaged the iconostasis, was carried out its restoration, it was completely restored. Especially for Ascension Church made a huge bronze chandelier, covered with a layer of 24 carat gold. Was opened the basement of the temple, which houses the exposition dedicated to the history of the construction of the Church of the Ascension.

At that time was realized the possibility of preserving the authentic decor of white stone, masonry iconostasis, which allowed preserving the overall architectural and artistic perfection of the Ascension Church of the dominant historical and cultural monuments of the Museum reserving Kolomenskoye.

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