2. The theory and experience of strategic management, planning in branch of producers of mineral fertilizers
Strategic management and planning in the modern industrial company
Strengthening of competitive pressure, competition toughening, globalization of world economic space, increase in dynamism of the external environment - one of the main conditions in which the industrial enterprises are forced to function. Administrative process constantly becomes complicated instability of an economic environment, increase in requirements of consumers to the made production and services, reduction of life cycle of goods, and the prospects of development of the companies become less predictable. There is an urgent need in activity of the companies on a gain and deduction of a share of the market, on achievement of superiority over competitors that is to a large extent provided with competent strategic management and planning.
Steady position of the company in the market and timely adaptation of systems of production and management of the company to dynamic changes of the external environment - key parameters of effective development of the industrial enterprise which have to be provided with competent strategic management and planning [ 15] to a large extent.
In scientific literature generally allocate four stages of evolution of strategic management: budgeting, long-term planning, strategic planning and strategic management (strategic management).
Evolution of concepts of strategic management (management) is presented in table 2.1, and also the main stages of development and formation of concepts are briefly characterized.
Evolution of concepts of strategic management
(Before World War II)
At the enteiprises there are no special divisions of planning per se.
Bosses of coiporations make development plans for business and make annually financial estimates with the indication of items of expenditure on the different purposes, both on each of large production economic units, and on small structural units within corporation.
Distinctive feature - short-term character of decisions and their internal orientation.
(The 1950th - the beginning of the 1960th)
As a result of high rates of development of the market relations and high predictability of the main of a tendency of development of economy the horizon of planning extends and sales forecast of firm for several years ahead is formed.
The main planned indicator - sales volume - was predicted on the basis of a method of extrapolation of indicators for the previous periods ("planning from reached" method) . On the basis of this indicator plans for production, supply, marketing, etc. were formed.
After that all these plans united in a unified plan of corporation.
(end of the 1960th)
Basis - planning of activity of the organization on the basis of the analysis of internal opportunities of the company and their comparison to a condition of an external environment.
Main objective - improvement of reaction of the enterprise to market condition changes. At this stage a conclusion about a forecast incorrectness on the basis of an extrapolation method is approved.
(about the 1990th)
Set not only long-term strategic decisions, but also concrete actions providing quick response of the company to the changes of a surrounding situation providing updating of the plan in case of need [60J
At the same time extrapolation is a method of scientific research which is based on distribution of the tendencies established in the past, regularities and communications on future development of a subject to forecasting . Such method allows to extrapolate (to transfer) to the future the tendencies established in the past and, thereby, to define reference points of strategic (long-term) planning.
One of founders of strategic management and management I. Ansoff defines strategic management as the system consisting of two interconnected elements: analysis and choice of strategic situation and operational management in real time .
At the same time often in modern literature strategic planning is considered as function of strategic management.
In turn there is a fundamental difference of strategic planning from other types of planning which are found in management process such as operational, tactical and long-term (perspective) planning.
In traditional practice the vector of long-term planning is sent from the past to the future. Strategic planning is defined by forming of a vector of the analysis and adoption of administrative decisions from the future in the present . This fact results in the main methodological difficulties at strategic planning and management: it is much easier to plan "from base", than to build the strategic plan today, based on ideas of the future.
The strategic management and planning is founded that it is necessary to predict at first a future situation, based on the analysis of the external environment (demand, market condition, purchasing power of the population, the main tendencies of development of branches and the markets, etc.). After the analysis of external factors it is necessary to carry out the analysis of how activity of the company taking into account their influence will strongly change and that needs to be made.
The methodology of strategic planning as functions of management began to develop especially violently at the beginning of the third millennium. Now there is extensive scope of methods and instruments of strategic planning and management: commercial organizations, companies of various sizes and fields of activity, group forms of activity, public organizations, and also public institutions .
The conclusion that strategic planning is the most widespread method of management became result of researches of the international consulting company "Bain&Company". Practically all largest Russian and foreign companies, such as Gazprom, Lukoil, "BASF", "Toyota", General Motors and others, regularly develop strategic plans and try to follow them. Except the sphere of business, universal large-scale penetration of the main methods and instruments of strategic planning into all spheres of socioeconomic life of society is observed.
The term strategic planning can be considered in several aspects.
As, first of all, strategic planning from the point of view of methodology was noted - it is a planning paradigm which has appeared in the late sixties, having succeeded long-term planning, and is widespread today. In this context strategic planning is a special approach which is necessary for implementation of function of long-term planning in the company and allows to maintain competitiveness of business in the conditions of the unstable external environment in the long term.
From the organizational point of view strategic planning is system of the interconnected structural elements which provides performance of the process of planning. From the functional point of view - it is continuous process of formation of the purposes and tasks, definitions of vision of the future, development of strategy, formation of the plan for realization of strategy and correction of strategy .
Strategic planning as the sphere of scientific activity is, first of all, the theory dealing with issues of drawing up strategic plans, their executions, an assessment and adjustment.
Thus, it is possible to assume that strategic planning is a process of preparation and implementation of the general action program directed to achievement of the put results in the future and capable to provide the largest growth and profitability of the company in the long term.
Subject to strategic planning are economic systems of various levels - large corporations, small and medium-sized companies, various institutions, commercial and non-profit organizations, and also industries, industrial complexes, regions, the national economy and the state in general.
Subject of strategic planning is set of the phenomena which not only inside, but also from the outside essentially influence results of activity of economic system, and also arise in her in the course of development and control of performance of long-term actions for her development .
In Russia the Federal law of June 28, 2014 with No. 172-FZ "About strategic planning in the Russian Federation" which regulates questions of implementation of strategic planning at the federal level, level of subjects of the Russian Federation and level of municipalities at the moment works.
According to the law strategic planning is the activities of participants of strategic planning for a goal-setting, forecasting, planning and programming of social and economic development of the Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation and municipalities, branches of economy and spheres of the public and municipal administration, ensuring national security of the Russian Federation directed to the solution of problems of sustainable social and economic development of the Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation and municipalities and ensuring national security of the Russian Federation .
The law has also entered a concept system of strategic planning - it is the mechanism of ensuring the coordinated interaction of participants of strategic planning on the basis of the principles of strategic planning at implementation of development and implementation of documents of strategic planning, and also monitoring and control of implementation of documents of strategic planning within a goal-setting, forecasting, planning and programming with use of standard and legal, information, scientific and methodical, financial and other resource support .
The concepts "strategy" and "strategic decisions" are often used in the context of strategic management and planning. There is a set of definitions of these concepts.
So, I. Ansoff defines strategy as "a set of rules for decision-making by which the organization is guided in the activity" .
Strategy is a specification of a way of development of the enterprise proceeding from dynamics of the external environment by means of a formulation of long-term goals of searches of resources for their achievement and planning of specific actions on prospect .
The term "strategy" (from Greek stratos - army, ago - the Veda) initially was understood as warfare art. Then the concept "strategic" has come to structure of terminology of management in value "most important", "defining".
Strategic decisions are decisions which have cardinal value for functioning of business and lead long-term and irreversible consequences. They are directed to transformations in the future and lay the foundation for adoption of operational administrative decisions; are accompanied by considerable risks and uncertainty, consider the uncontrollable external factors influencing the enterprise; are connected with involvement considerable material, financial and a manpower, and also have serious, longterm, irreversible consequences for the enterprise .
Strategic decisions are characterized by the fact that their acceptance is carried out by means of the choice from a set of the known in advance alternative options . In practice of work of the industrial enterprises such decisions include plans of capital reconstruction, expansions and elimination of productions, are connected with modernization or rearmament of capacities, expansion or reduction of business, introduction of innovations, transition to outsourcing, and also include various organizational changes (changes of legal form of the enterprise, structure of production and management, interaction with suppliers and consumers), etc.
Also it should be noted existence of characteristics of planning in various countries. For example, for the American companies association of strategy of all divisions (strategic units of business) and distribution of resources is characteristic; for the English - orientation to competent distribution of resources; for the Japanese - constant introduction of innovations, improvement of quality of strategic plans, decisions and management in general.
As it was marked above, now strategic control of the industrial companies acquires the increasing relevance. The concept "strategic control" was put into the general practice to designate a difference between the current control on level of production and control which is exercised top-level, and also for the purpose of separation of that fact that strategic control (unlike the existing earlier strategic planning) provides quick response of the company to changes of the environment. In most cases changes in the conditions of business in the form of increase in dynamism of an external environment created need for fixing of such distinction.
For the first time methods of strategic control were developed in the USA in the early seventies, and Texas Instruments" and others are put into practice already in the early seventies by such companies as "General Electric", IBM, "Coca-Cola", ". Many large companies already began use of these methods in the control by the beginning of the" 1980th .
Reflection of the main ideas of strategic control can be found in operations of such authors, as well as. Ansoff, A. Chandler, G. Mintsberg, F. Zeltsnik, P. Drukeri of a number of other scientists. At the same time the key idea reflecting the main entity of transition from the taken operational management to strategic became the idea about need of transfer of center of attention of the top management to an external surrounding for timely response to the changes happening in it (24].
According to G. Mintsberg, strategic management is used by firms which are ready to revolutionary changes, and pushes them to it external environment .
A. Thompson and R. Striklend on the key place put the management plan the organization which is directed to strengthening of the existing positions, satisfaction of requirement and stage-by-stage achievement of the objectives .
Today strategic management is the key factor allowing the companies to survive successfully in the becoming complicated economic and market conditions, but, despite it, often it is possible to observe lack of a strategy in actions of many companies that often leads to their defeat in competitive fight .
More brightly lack of strategic management is shown in the following two forms. The first them - when the organizations which are carrying out strategic planning recognize the fact that external an environment won't undergo any changes. Attempts of drawing up the long-term strategic plans which aren't considering change of the external environment without their timely updating - signs not of strategic management. The second form of not strategic management - development of the action program from the analysis of internal opportunities and resources of the company. At such approach the company often can't achieve the desirable objectives as their achievement in many respects depends on needs of consumers, behavior of competitors, market and branch tendencies .
For modern Russia mechanisms of strategic management are only in a formation stage in conditions when fast changes of the external environment of the domestic companies stimulate emergence of new methods, tools and approaches to management.
For the reason that most the modern Russian companies should work in quickly changing and difficult predictable surrounding, there is a need of use of methods and instruments of strategic control, however very often the understanding of need of such need comes not directly. Strategic methods and instruments of control impose requirements to use of specific models of acceptance and implementation of decisions, such as strategic planning, control by means of a choice of strategic line items, control on the basis of ranging of strategic tasks, control on feeble signals of willows conditions of strategic surprises and the whole list of others.
In general strategic control is represented as process of acceptance and implementation of strategic decisions which central link - a strategic choice which is based on comparison of own resource capacity of the enterprise to opportunities and threats of an external surrounding.
Expedient step is concentration of all activities of the enterprise on achievement of its long-term goals and tasks. For this purpose presence of complete volume of data, both about financial, and about production economic activity of the company is necessary. It shall provide managers of the company with conditions for the correct decisionmaking for further successful activities.
In the past in case of implementation of strategic control it was supposed that the main accent is the entity of the developed strategy, and the form of its representation and implementation has no special value. Gradually views of managers changed as strategic objectives can be achieved only on condition that employees of the company will accurately realize them. In case of formalization of components of any strategy the probability of its successful implementation in life significantly increases.
Modern development of the industrial companies considerably is defined by efficiency of strategic management which is capable to provide high final rates of PHD and does possible successful development in the competitive environment, namely in a situation which is subject to fast, radical and often difficult to predict changes, both in the next, and in a long-term outlook .
So, strategic management is often connected with change of the direction of development of the industrial company, namely with the choice of strategy of her development at the accounting of influence of external factors.
Thus, strategic management to the industrial enterprises is understood as purposeful impact on processes of his functioning by means of adoption of reasonable decisions in the conditions of uncertainty and continuous influence of the external environment for achievement of his purposes.
At the same time strategic planning as an element of strategic management is one of key tools which allows to provide further more effective development of the company on the basis of her strategic objectives .
In the figure 2.1. instruments of strategic planning which promote  are presented:
Strategy is dynamic. It is necessary to refresh and reconsider constantly strategy, being in time behind the changes happening in the business world and in the company. Flexible strategy which will be difficult for reproduction by competitors becomes a source of competitive advantage in modern conditions.
At the same time copying of methods and instruments of strategic management which are described in domestic and foreign literature, and also their adaptation and a ratio with real operating conditions of the concrete company is necessary not just.
Of course, strategic planning in itself and strategic management can't guarantee success in activity of the company, however systematic use of tools and methods of planning and management can create a number of the major advantages to the company. Relevance of strategic planning and management increases in modern conditions of business every year.
It would be desirable to note that strategic planning is one of the most important functions in management of the organization. Putting into practice the principles and methods of strategic planning, the organization increases the chances of success in competitive fight.
Fig. 2.1. Instruments of strategic planning
Achievement of maximum efficiency of this process requires application of a complex of main types of administrative activity (within process of strategic planning), such as expedient distribution of resources, adaptation to the external environment, internal coordination and organizational strategic anticipation. Complex use of these types of administrative activity will make possible for the company systematization of process of planning and management and, as a result, obtaining the expected results.