Актуальные проблемы современного ГУМАНИТАРНОГО ЗНАНИЯ

Abdullakhanova D.B.

Trilingualism in Astana City’s Public Spaces

Abdullakhanova D.B., 4th year student Supervisor -Damira Birzhanovna Akynova Eurasian National University named after Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov, Astana, Kazakhstan

The study is devoted to analysis of the use of ergons in the social and communicative spaces of Astana city. The work was carried out analysis on the basis of texts on public signs, display signs, advertising brochures, billboards and displays of «linguistic landscape» of the capital of Kazakhstan. The article reveals problems that have arisen due to the uneven use of three languages, as well as the functions of using ergons.

Keywords: trilingual, law, message, language status, onomastics, ergons, signs, pointers.

The idea of trinity languages was proclaimed in October 2006 on the twelfth Congress of the Assembly of Nations of Kazakhstan, where Kazakhstan’s President N. Nazarbayev said that knowledge of three languages was very important for next generation’s future, moreover he claimed that “Kazakhstan must be considered as a highly developed country all over the world, where three languages are used. They are Kazakh, the state language, Russian, the language of international communication and English, the language of integration into the global economics” [1]. Knowledge of several languages always broadens nation’s abilities to communication and integration. Thus, the trinity of the languages will be an indicator of the competitiveness of the country. The citizens, speaking several languages fluently, will be competitive individuals both in their motherland and abroad.

Obviously, we must raise the status of Kazakh language to create conditions for equal and full use of three languages: Kazakh, Russian and

English in our country. Therefore, it is necessary not to forget that at present conditions creation stage exactly for the state language is paramount, which would strengthen its status, stabilize linguistic situation. These three problems are closely linked with each other, each of them has its own specificities, but we must understand a simple truth: learning of any foreign, that is the second or third language, begins with perfect knowledge of native tongue. Such is the world experience. In other words, the basis, the foundation and also the highest point of the triangle is the state language of Kazakhstan.

How and when did the “The trinity of the languages” appear as an idea? “It is the fact that the new generation of Kazakhstan should be trilingual, fluent in Kazakh, Russian and English”, said the President in 2004, opening the first session of the Mazhilis, the lower house of Parliament, of the third convocation. Noting the importance of the prudent, balanced ethnic and language policy, Nursultan Nazarbayev said that the European language norm among the graduates and students meant fluent communication in several languages; and our citizens had to come to that norm, too [2J.

Language planning and language policy have become an organic part of the general policy aimed at improving the social, economic and cultural situation in the city. The language situation for the citizen should be as comfortable as its socio-cultural and economic status.

In this regard, special and relevant is the issue of language policy and regulation in the field of so-called new types of urban facilities: commercial, retail, financial, educational and other organizations. According to L.Z.Padbyarozkina [3J, the importance of the sphere of urban nominations caused both the type of designated reality (socially significant space), and the factors «culture» and the historicity of the nomination, the fact is that the name become the most important element of culture and national identity.

Nominative processes in ergonemy have their own characteristics. This is consistent actions committed by the nominator: the choice of the principle, method of nomination (motivated or unmotivated name, real or symbolic, the use of natural language vocabulary or creating new nominative units), determination of language means that is necessary for the implementation of communicative intentions referred to the subject, the choice of a graphical image of the title, its written fixation of in advertising catalogs and the fact of appropriation a message in the media.

It is clear that natural onomastic nomination and the results are undesirable for the communicative city spaces, although in general it reflects to the natural language and speech processes. This problem is also reflected in the current language situation of a particular city. Thus it is necessary not only linguistic monitoring city titles but also a certain regulation of processes occurring in it, it means the optimal language planning and implementation of language policy.

For example, onomastic space of Astana is actively developing which is caused by powerful transformations dictated by the change of the geopolitical, social and economic priorities, manifested in the mass renaming and new categories of objects that provide vital functions of a modern person; in the restoration and revival of pre-existing proper names; the creation of national color; expanding shell called objects; involvement in social and national nomination marked linguistic units, the inclusion of foreign- language and other elements. Dynamics and expansion zones onomastic space are also due to changes in the concept of a proper name, the emergence of new Kazakh naming convention.

The research work was organized which is based on analysis of theoretical sources, and the practical work that shows a description of the changes occurring in the names of places, buildings, advertisements in Astana in terms of communicative-pragmatic approach, as well as identifying their pragmatic potential. The material of the study are ergonems. Astana includes the official name of the business, commercial, cultural and sports facilities, obtained by continuous sampling of advertisements in the media, from a variety of directories, as well as by written fixing ergonemy.

The aim of the research work was to identify the effects of language policy in Kazakhstan based on linguistic landscape.

The research demonstrate the following results.

Picture 1. City road signs and pylons

In Astana incorrect signs were occurred in the streets. Recently was announced that in order to ensure free orientation in the city road signs and pylons were installed, which is there are only two, but one of them have already managed to make a mistake. For example - «FIoHTaMnT» where the authors would like to indicate the «post office». The word comes from the German postamt, where «post» is mail, “amt” is management, agencies.

Also in other identifier mistake is made - “Ka3aKCTaH PecnyduHKa- Cbi TyHFbim Jlpe3HtteHTiHin Mypa>”. The word «Tyurbim» there is no a specific index Kazakh language letter «H,». The design and usage of colors also have been criticized. Community noted that color decision «beyond human logic.» It is known that yellow text on a turquoise background is very hard to read, in addition, the font size is also poor.

Picture 2. Advertisement & Billboard

The second example is an advertisement for a phone company. This is very clearly in Kazakh and Russian (and the context for the advert as a whole is exclusively in three languages), yet is partially written in a script which resembles English, thus symbolically representing the possibilities and thematic identity. The main problem of this advertisement is that there is no explanation of adverted product in English, although there should be been description in three languages.

Picture 3. Street sign

Such monolingual biscriptal street sign are in every corner of Astana city. Despite of fact of trinity languages in Kazakhstan names of streets have not yet been renamed. According to the language policy first of all the task of our government should be giving streets names in three languages, because the importance of it is that Astana not only simple city but also it represents our capital status. And it should be noted that renaming process make simple orientation around the city for foreigners.

Analyses show language functions and language distribution of signs. Six language functions were found. They are providing general information such as labeling names of room offices or places, greetings and presenting farewell messages to the passengers, giving directions, warning, prohibitions, and advertising organization by using slogans. According to the table below, in terms of the appearance of languages, it was found that Kazakh and Russian appear together in five language functions except street names which are presented in Kazakh only. English appears only on the signs which aim to warn foreigners to be aware of strangers who may disguise themselves may mislead use other modes of transportation or even give incorrect information.

These are examples of signs

Picture 6. Giving general information

Picture 7. Giving direction

Language functions and language distribution in Signs created by companies and local shops

Language Functions


Bilingual &Trilingual



Kazakh, Russian, English

Local shops


Kazakh, Russian, English

Picture 8. Khan-Shatyr Entertainment Center

In this national and the most popular place in Astana shops with Kazakh titles have not seen.

Picture 10. Restaurant “Zhety Qazyna”

It was noticeable that restaurant displays their name in Kazakh also displayed other texts in the local language which can also be translated.

Picture 11. Italian Caf? “Del Papa”

Picture 12. Uzbek Caf?

Statistics showed that the number of ergonemy presented in the Kazakh language were 22.3% in Russian - 11.2%, in English - 8.2% (in other parts of the city there were a category of business sites in other languages: French language - 2.6%, Italian - 2.3, in Arabic - 1.6, on the Turkish - 1.4, Uzbek - 1.4, on the Georgian - 0.7, in Spanish - 0.5 at Chinese - 0.5, in the Uighur language- 0.2). The other parts of the ergonemy (47.1%) is represented by different abbreviations or constructed on any associative representations: they may be purely descriptive name and the other, which makes it impossible to attribute them to a particular ethnic group.

The number of Kazakh ergonemy increased by approximately 7-8% annually, and since 2011 has been a sharp increase in business establishments nominating of Astana in the state language. Establishing and systematizing the lexical-semantic features of the capital ergonemy, we conclude that the most popular are ergonems derived from anthroponyms (Kazakh, Russian, English), the amount of Kazakh language anthroponyms dominates. Studying methods of formation of ergonemy in Astana it was suggested that almost all the above types are relevant for today, but it is necessary to note some of the trends that are characteristic of the city, which has the status of the capital. These include the names of the business objects, formed by the abbreviation. Despite the implementation of the policy of bilingualism, the capital's residents do not accept some of the names of trading houses, clubs, stores and other large objects («Cinema City», «Astana Tower», «Europe Palace»), for the reason that most of them do not understand the meaning of names presented in a foreign language because they do not speak in foreign language.

For example, in Astana a team of volunteers who are the students of universities was formed. All of them are fluent in the Kazakh language. They were involved in the collection of material in which the visual information is not framed in accordance with the language policy. As a result, it became known that 50% of all information on signs, billboards and billboards do not correspond to the language policy “On languages” [4]. Discussion was held with the owners of these companies and businesses, billboards were replaced and re-subjected.

As mentioned earlier that the use of English as an international language, which has often been related to the process of globalization, is a key factor that encourage people in the countries whose first language is not English pay more attention on the use of languages around them. Kazakhstan is one of those countries. If we look for the meaning of the term ‘internationalization’ from the dictionary, it simply means ‘the process of becoming or making something international in scope’. The findings from this study may reveal that in almost every part of organization both private and public, they are aware of this term. The signs and the use of English may be the good indicators because English not only has largely symbolic value, but also carries distinctive connotations. First and foremost it conveys notions of internationality, success and Western orientation [5]. With the use of bilingual signs, it creates mutual understanding between the host and the visitors. It lights up welcoming atmosphere and raise positive attitudes towards the countries.

The results showed that three different languages were used: Kazakh, English and Russian. Of the 20 signs, 60% (or 12 signs) was written in multilingual scripts. 10% (or 2 signs) was in English script. 30% (or 6 signs) was codemixng.

As mentioned above, the multilingual script was mostly used on signs. The majority of the signs were bilingual signs, namely in Russian and Kazakh script. They displayed a clear separation of languages. One line contains Kazakh script, the other contains English script. This supports Professor N.T. Zhaksylykov who claim that “the first line contains Kazakh script, lexicon and syntax; the second contains Russian script, lexicon and syntax. One can claim that in this sign, Kazakh is the prominent language, both by virtue of its placement above the English and by the size of its script”. In Astana tourist attraction areas, English signs are intended for both foreigners and a class of educated people. Educated Kazakh people have varying degrees of proficiency in English, many quite high. Similarly, relatively few foreigners can speak Kazakh, much fewer can read it. Therefore, translation is the preferred strategy. Inclusion of English adds a cosmopolitan flair to the message that isn’t available in a sign using only Kazakh or Russian. Interestingly, the second rank gave to the codemixing script. Therefore, one can claim that English has a fairly important influence on the use of language of the signs in Astana tourist attraction areas.

The signs in the present study were divided into four functions, i.e. informational, symbolic, mythological, and commercial function.

Two signs (10%) demonstrated the mythological function, while 5 signs (25%) were set to perform the symbolic function. Beyond all doubt, the majority of the signs (10, 50%) performed the informational function, and the remaining signs were given to 3 signs (15%) which represented the commercial function.

There is no doubt that English is the dominant language on codemixng signs in Khan-Shatyr tourist attraction area. Inclusion of bilingual codemixng script challenges Smalley’s claim (1994) that English in the public space is directed at foreigners. It aims to attract both Kazakh people and foreigners. Kazakh script containing English lexicon and /or syntax is definitely directed to a general Kazakh audience. For a class of educated Kazakh, it might have no problem to understand the function of those Kazakh scripts in English words and syntax. But for common people, these signs are for modernity internationally. They might get the function of these scripts from other information such as pictures on the shop window, etc.

The study conducted in conformity with the research objectives allowed us to make a number of theoretical and practical conclusions. In this regard, the most conclusions as well as recommendations originated from the article can be summarized as followings:

The results showed that Kazakh-English and codemixing scripts were mainly used on the signs in Astana tourist attraction areas. The essential Linguistic Landscape functions performed in the target areas were informational function and commercial function. Surprisingly, even there is no English speaking community around the areas English has a great influence on signs. Five types of codemixng were found on the signs. Furthermore, the increasing number of single English signs as well as Kazakh-English signs which the Kazakh script is codemixing type indicates that English is becoming the dominant language in particular on commercial signs, as Ross (1997, p. 31) stated “The simple reason for most of these shop signs (in Milan) is that English today is seen as an attractive and fashionable language. An English name lends an aura of chic prestige to a business, suggesting that it is part of the international scene, following the latest trends, up-to-date with the newest ideas”.

Because an Russification of Kazakh society Kazakhstan try to develop the Kazakh language to preserve their identity and originality, however if we imagine whole picture of Astana we can say that nowadays it is a period of Americanization of our society, because many of the names of the supermarket business centers, etc. are written in English. The analysis illustrates that the dominant language in public places in Astana is Russian, then Kazakh on an equal quantity with English.

Thus, the program of the trinity of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan is a concept that promotes the further strengthening of the country, its capacity for successful integration into the world community, accelerating the development of competitive Kazakhstan. This language policy provides all the possibilities for human development, which will help our country to enter the top 30 most developed countries of the world. «Trilingualism should be a normal phenomenon for our society» said N. Nazarbayev.


  • 1. State program of development and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020. - Astana, 2011.
  • 2. http://www.parlam.kz/ru/presidend-speech/5
  • 3. Подберезкина Л.З. Языковая политика в системе городских наименований: теоретические и прикладные аспекты (на материале г. Красноярска) // Речевое общение. Специализированный вестник / Краснояр. гос. ун-т. - Вып. 4 (12). - Красноярск, 2002. - С. 146-154.
  • 4. О языках в Республике Казахстан: Закон Республики Казахстан от 11 июл. 1997 г. № 151-1, с изм., внесенными Законом РК от 20 дек. 2004 г. № 13-Ш). Статья 4, 5 // Основные законодательные акты о языках. - Алматы : Юрист, 2005. - С. 5-12.
  • 5. Landscape as symbolic construction of the public space: The Case of Israel. International Journal of Multilingualism 3(1), 7-30.

Abdullakhanova D.B.

Use of case study as a method of pedagogical technology in senior grades

Abdullakhanova D.B., 4th year student Eurasian National University named after Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov, Astana, Kazakhstan

This work is devoted to the implementation of case study method to secondary schools of Kazakhstan. There were conducted research work and found out several results of using case study in rural and local schools. Moreover, analysis carried out experimental classes especially in senior grades which is considered to be more applicable technology.

Keywords: case-study, method, teaching, humanitarian education, foreign language, communication skills, issues.

In today's information society teachers focus on the implementation of teaching methods that develop ability to learn independently, to think critically, ability to self-knowledge and self-realization in different types of creative activities. Extremely effective way, in order to create a comfortable environment in which every student will be successful while learning a foreign language is a kind of work as a case study (from the English, case study - «study in situations»), known in national education as case method or method of situations (or learning with specific examples). Case study method is aimed to students constant active collaboration, cooperative learning, mutual (collective, group, cooperative) learning when the other of educational process is impossible. Students learn to be democratic, to communicate with other people, to think critically and make decisions.

Analysis of studies devoted to the introduction of the case method in the preparation of students, and theoretical literature that contains information about development of case method as a method of teaching business and Economics, has allowed to establish that the issue requires careful design in the context of the application in the field of humanitarian education.

This article is devoted to the application of one of the most modern and actively used interactive methods of teaching foreign languages at schools - a case study. Method of case study is focused on students teaching methodology and develops critical thinking and communication skills of interpersonal communication. This method can be used to motivate students to use foreign language more in class. The method of case study is interdisciplinary by its nature and provides an opportunity to apply theoretical knowledge in practice. In this paper was emphasized that working with cases requires students’ active development of research skills and skills in using multiple data sources. Using techniques of case study in classes put students in a real situation, teaching them organizational skills such as the ability to hold a business meeting, to negotiate, to prepare and deliver presentations. The senior thesis describes the stages of the work, showing the advantages and difficulties of applying case study in the foreign language. When using this method of teaching it is necessary to equip classrooms with modern teaching technical facilities. The aim of this work is to determine the value of case study method as one of interactive methods of teaching foreign languages at schools, to familiarize the reader with the experience of using this method in teaching foreign languages at schools in Kazakhstan.

There is a range of educational challenges and opportunities of the case-study method:

  • • acquisition of new knowledge and development of general ideas; но
  • • development of students' self-critical and strategic thinking, the ability to listen to and consider the alternative views, express their points of view;
  • • development of skills which are necessary for the analysis of complex and unstructured problems;
  • • development of common sense, responsibility for the decisionmaking process, the
  • • ability to communicate;
  • • skills development activities and their implementation;
  • • teacher and the student are equal, and the dominance of one participant over the the ability to work in a team;
  • • the ability to find the most efficient solution to the problem;
  • Advantages of the method of case-study include: сосать use of the principles of problem-based training

development of the real problems-solving skills, the ability to work in a single group of the problem field;

development of team-building skills; development of skills of simple generalization; development of presentation skills; неужели

development of skills of press-conference, the ability to formulate a question, reason a response;

Disadvantages of case studies хорошо

Despite these advantages, case studies have received criticisms. Yin discusses three types of arguments against case study research. First, case studies are often accused of lack of rigour. Yin notes that “too many times, the case study investigator has been sloppy, and has allowed equivocal evidence or biased views to influence the direction of the findings and conclusions”.

Second, case studies provide very little basis for scientific generalisation since they use a small number of subjects, some conducted with only one subject. The question commonly raised is “How can you generalise from a single case?”3(j)(j)eKTHBH0

Third, case studies are often labelled as being too long, difficult to conduct and producing a massive amount of documentation. In particular, case studies of ethnographic or longitudinal nature can elicit a great deal of data over a period of time. The danger comes when the data are not managed and organised systematically. A common criticism of case study method is its dependency on a single case exploration making it difficult to reach a generalising conclusion. [1, 360-365J. Yin considered case methodology ‘microscopic’ because of the limited sampling cases. To Hamel et al. (1993) and Yin (1994), however, parameter establishment and objective setting of the research are far more important in case study method than a big sample size [2]

To begin with, high school in Kazakhstan is considered to be 9- 11 grades. In accordance with program of upper secondary school education set of applicable tasks were made. The main purpose of these tasks is to show whether they can be used in Kazakhstani schools and be useful for pupils or not. All tasks were composed in accordance with book “English 10 by T. Ayapova, Z. Abildayeva, Zh. Tutbayeva” and followed all requirements of SSESS (GOSO).

We have always been interested in innovative teaching methods. Innovation has become an integral part of modern education and the task of teachers lie in the proper selection and use of educational technologies in order to ensure the effectiveness of learning and teaching English. While working as an English teacher in secondary school there were developed methods for applying IT-technologies at English classes or used dramatization in extracurricular work and method of projects with the use of multimedia. Case study method allows us to combine new and traditional teaching methods what is, undoubtedly, become value of this method in teaching foreign languages.

As it was suggested by scholars, for a successful work of students using case studies communicative competence of students required to be on the level B1 - B2. That is why we investigated students of education system worked out for students of gymnasium. In these terms, it should be mentioned, that to be successful in using case studies a teacher should take into consideration the level of students’ language knowledge. The best choice would be using it with the student groups of intermediate or advanced level, who may have certain problems in grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary use, but for the most part are at ease with speaking the foreign language.

In order to comprehend the effectiveness and possibility of use case method in schools there were conducted experimental classes with this method. Research case has been developed for students of 10th grade of gymnasium № 22, Kazakhstan, Astana.






90 min (2 classes)

Kind of case


Type of case

Case-problem method, teaching analysis and evaluation

Proposed case is final step of the module “Traditions and customs”, and contains such topics as “Kazakh beliefs”, “Kazakh cuisine”, “Traditions and customs”.

In studying module “Traditions and customs” students get acquainted with several texts about traditions, beliefs, dishes and etc., studied new vocabulary, and did number of lexical and grammatical tasks, according to “English 10 by T.

Ayapova, Z. Abildayeva, Zh. Tutbayeva, p. 130-150”

The 25 students of 10th grade (10th grade of school-gymnasium №22, Astana, Kazakhstan and 10th grade of M. Makatayev public school, Aksukent village, South Kazakhstan) attended classes held by using case- study method. Their lessons were held according to state program. As they were not acquainted with such a technique, they were introduced with it. Afterwards, they were given a topical vocabulary regarding the theme of a given case. We had chosen closed case studies, where all information is provided by the teacher for that case.

Implementing case-study method in the classroom was conducted by following steps:

  • • Students were given enough time to read and think about the case, as the method was quite new for the pupils. If the case is long, assign it as homework with a set of questions for students to consider (e.g., What is the nature of the problem the central character is facing? What are some possible courses of action? What are the potential obstacles?)
  • • The case was introduced briefly and students were provided with some guidelines for how to approach it. Clarify how you want students to think about the case. Steps in analyzing the case taken by students were broken down as follows:

First, identifying the constraints each character in the case was operating under and the opportunities s/he had.

Second, evaluating the decisions each character made and their implications.

Finally, explaining what they would have done differently and why [3].

We would like students to disregard or focus on certain information, specify that as well (e.g., “1 want you to ignore the political affdiation of the characters described and simply distinguish their positions on stem-cell research as they are articulated here.”)

• The groups were created and students were monitored in order to make sure everyone is involved.

The 10A and 10 B classes (overall 25 students, 10 A-14 students, 10 B—11 students) students were divided into 3 groups. Students were given topical vocabulary and the case to analyze. The main features of students such as grammar, comprehension of a case and expressing their ideas were observed. The task given them was to define the problem and suggest possible solutions. Then, they had to choose appropriate one. Questions were asked for clarification and to move discussion to another level. One of the challenges for a case-based discussion leader is to guide the discussion and probe for deeper analysis without over-directing. Groups had to present their solutions or reasoning. If groups know they are responsible for producing something (a decision, rationale, analysis) to present to the class, they will approach the discussion with greater focus and seriousness. The results obtained in this experiment are drawn in the Histogram 1.

Histogram 1. Assessment of students’ performance level

As it is depicted in the Histogram their acquisition level was higher than the level of preceding grades. Their speaking skills were quite developed. Case-based approach is a useful method to develop the following skills:

  • • group working;
  • • individual study skills;
  • • information gathering and analysis;
  • • time management;
  • • presentation skills;

It is clear, that case-study method is one of the modern methods in teaching foreign languages. Accordingly, it was complicated for students to comprehend the main goal of using this method, objectives to be fulfilled and the results expected from them [4J. Challenges we faced in implementing tasks were due to insufficiency of following abilities:

Figure 10. Abilities students were expected to have

In comparison with the 10Ih grade B students the 10th grade A students had higher level of comprehension. However, their speaking level and grammar were not differentiated a lot from the secondary school students.

Nevertheless, the other vital skills needed in case technology using such as development of common sense, a sense of responsibility for the decision, the ability to communicate; the ability to work in a team; the ability to find the most efficient solution to the problem were developed better than the students took part in the experiment before.

As the level of students attending state secondary school was not enough to use case-study method in their lesson, we applied for method only for those with language level B2. In order to make further comparisons we chose the 9th and 10th grade students, correspondingly.

We have dwelled upon the following guidelines to be relied on to ensure that maximum learning is taking place:

  • • Speaking in the foreign language should be applicable to real-life situations.
  • • Errors in pronunciation, structure, word order, grammar, etc. are to be expected.
  • • Vocabulary should be taught in context.
  • • Content should be taught using a number of approaches and a variety of instructional tools and materials.
  • • Emphasis should be given to all four skills of language learning: reading, writing, listening and speaking.
  • • Grammar is usually taught by modeling and repetition.
  • • The speed of speaking is normal and authentic, both by the teacher and the student.
  • • Students are not expected to speak in complete sentence. Utterances may be complete sentences, groups of words, single words, etc. depending upon the nature of the speaking situation.
  • • Limit the use of English so that students are encouraged to use the foreign language. English should only be used by the teacher when clarification is necessary.

To sum up, it should be noted that in order to be successful in using case studies a teacher should take into consideration the level of students’ language knowledge. The best choice would be using it with the student groups of intermediate or advanced level, who may have certain problems in grammar, pronunciation or vocabulary use, but for the most part are at ease with speaking the foreign language the use of case studies to be methodical, information, organizational and educationally sound and secure.

But the main facts which was developed from this study is that method a case study now is applicable for only to intellectual or school- gymnasiums where the level of language proficiency corresponds to the SES. As it is well known, rural public schools will not be able to implement this method because:

  • • Level of teachers ' qualification does not meet standards
  • • Students are not prepared for such kind of exercises, it is not enough language skills for expression of their decisions.
  • • Mostly English lessons explains in Russian language which shows the lack of preparedness of the students.
  • • Time limit
  • • Classes are not equipped with necessary equipment Undoubtedly, the function field case studies pens up the possibility

to use and complements the traditional classical methods of teaching English. Using case studies in teaching English - it is one more step towards the integration of the Kazakhstani education system into the world educational space.

«Case study method is not just a methodological innovation; spread of the method is directly related to changes in current situation in education. We can say that method is aimed not so much on development of specific knowledge or skills, but rather on development of general intellectual and communicative potential of student and teacher as well».


  • 1. Obshchaia metodika obucheniia inostrannym iazykam: khresto- matiia. Costavitel' A.A. Leont'ev. Moscow, Russkii iazyk Publ., 1991. p.360-365
  • 2. Yin, R., (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing, p. 107-108.
  • 3. Baklashkina M.V. Obuchenie inoiazychnomu mezhlichnostnomu obshcheniiu na zaniatiiakh po inostrannomu iazyku v shkole i v vuze [Training of foreign language interpersonal communication at the foreign language lessons at school and university]. Inostrannye iazyki v shkole, 2009, no. 3, pp. 9-16.

Gorbaneva E.N., Gorbaneva E.N.

State educational policy in post grade education: current situation, problems and prospects

Gorbaneva E.N., 1st year master student Higher School of Economics National Research University Moscow, Russia Gorbaneva E.N., lecturer

Rossosh branch Voronezh region state budget professional educational institution «Province pedagogical college»

Rossosh, Russia

In many countries the structure and funding basis of postgraduate education are undergoing tremendous changes. Regulation of the quality of education and implementation of measures for its development is part of the policy of any state. The aim of the study was to assess the level of public administration education in Russia on the basis of econometric models.

Ключевые слова: post grade education, quality of education, public expenditure on education, research.

In many countries the structure and funding basis of postgraduate education are undergoing tremendous changes. Methods for administering and directing postgraduate education are being transformed and individual universities and colleges are being asked to engage in new tasks and assume new responsibilities. Governments are simultaneously devolving more control over programmers and budgets to individual institutions while directly intervening in postgraduate education systems in order to ensure greater economic efficiency, quality of outcome, student access and accountability - the magic words of modern day postgraduate education policy-making.

In this respect, an international trend can be observed in the changing relationship between the government and higher education, namely: the trend for national governments to retain the prerogative to set broad policies, particularly budgetary ones, while increasingly transferring the responsibility for growth, innovation, and diversification in postgraduate education to individual institutions.[l]

At the same time, however, it should be noted that change perceived in the above manner is not an integral feature of all postgraduate education systems.

Developments in postgraduate education in general and in postgraduate education policy in particular can be analyzed from a multitude of perspectives. A quick glance through the existing literature suffices to affirm this statement [2J.

Regulation of the quality of education and implementation of measures for its development is part of the policy of any state. As one of the indicators of society indicator of the quality of education is influenced by many factors, timely analysis which allows you to adjust the effect on the intensity and direction of the development of various methods and means. [3]

In addition, one of the strategic objectives of the state policy is to ensure the needs of the economy and social sphere in professional personnel of necessary qualification, practical orientation of educational programs, creation of conditions for development of continuous education.[4]

These facts determined the research questions of this work:

  • 1. What are the instruments of state regulation of postgraduate education are used in Russia?
  • 2. As instruments of state regulation of postgraduate education affect the performance of science and education?

Object of study: public policy in the regulation of postgraduate education.

Subject of research: econometric methods of analysis to assess the quality of education in Russia.

The aim of the study was to assess the level of public administration education in Russia on the basis of econometric models.

Objectives of the study:

  • 1. Perform analysis of existing works on public administration of postgraduate education.
  • 2. To examine the tools of public administration postgraduate education in Russia.
  • 3. To evaluate the impact of public management tools on the performance of post-graduate education in Russia.

To achieve this objective, the study used a set of scientific methods:

methods of scientific generalization, comparison, system analysis, to explore the contemporary state of public policy in the regulation of postgraduate education and analysis of existing research in this area.

This group of methods used for the selection of indicators public policy in the regulation of postgraduate education. The analysis period 2006- 2015. The main sources of information are data of the Federal state statistics service and the Ministry of education of the Russian Federation.

econometric methods for the assessment of state regulation measures and indicators of postgraduate education. In particular, this study uses basic analysis based on descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis.

In pursuance of conducting an appropriate research, this study will use quantitative approach, as it is focused on analysing empirical evidence, which is expressed in numeric data. Another reason to use the quantitative approach is that it implies empirical evaluations.

The quantitative approach will allow: accurately and in detail to formulate the research problem; precise and clearly identify the independent and dependent variables in the research process;

follow the goals and objectives of the research, the possibility of obtaining more objective results to establish a causal connection; eliminate and minimize subjective conclusions; conduct lengthy, repetitive measurements.

Quantitative research method allowed us to obtain numerical data that brought us to the objectivity of the conclusions, a high level of reliability and accuracy.

Formation of research base

In our opinion, the most important indicator reflecting the development of education in the country are:

The quality of education.

Public expenditure on education per capita per year.

Total expenditure on research and development work.

The percentage of illiterates among the population above 15 years. Information base of the research is based on Russian and foreign sources Agency of statistics of the countries and organizations which carry out regular surveys in the field of education.

So on the basis of the Federal law «On official statistical accounting and state statistics system in the Russian Federation» and the decree of the Government of the Russian Federation «On approval of the regulations on the Federal service of state statistics», the Federal state statistics service (Rosstat) is a Federal Executive authority responsible for drafting state policy and legal regulation in the sphere of official statistical accounting, the formation of official statistical information about social, economic, demographic, ecological and other public processes in the Russian Federation1.

OenepajibHaa cjiy>K6a rocyaapcTBCHHOH CTaracTHKH. [3jieKTpoHHbin pecypc]. Pe>KHM aocTyna: http://www.gks.ru/

At the electronic resource hosted Rosstat data on such education indicators as:

he number of educational institutions; number of students in educational institutions; expenditure on education in international comparison; coverage of education in international comparison.

An indicator of the quality of education is the most informative and reflects the conformity of level of received knowledge to the demands of society (socialization of graduates), state (state standard), the consumer of educational services (educational content), the compliance of the conditions of education. This determines the relevance of its choice as the effective feature and the grounds for grouping countries around the world.

In the Russian Federation monitoring of the quality of education is carried out by the Ministry of education and science with the involvement of non-governmental organizations. Additionally, this examination may be initiated by:

public councils; teaching staff;

parents and high school students.

The results of such monitoring are analytical reports. In addition, this indicator has a numerical representation in the form of expert assessments on the resource of the Ministry of education[1].

Table 1 - Descriptive statistics






















The quality of education (measured in points from 0 to 10)








Public expenditure on education per capita per year (PPP), in USD.


  • 159,70
  • 0






Total expenditure on research and development work , in % of GDP








The percentage of illiterates among the population above 15 years (%)








Valid N (listwise)


To check the criterion Jarque-Bera use the fact that the normal distribution the coefficient of skewness is zero and kurtosis equal to 3, the deviation of these variables from normal values is a measure of deviation from normal distribution. The stat Jarque-Bera compare with the table value Pearson criterion at a significance level of 0.05 and number of degrees of freedom 3. This value is equal to 5,226.

For modeling pair-wise linear regression examine the direction and strength of correlation factors based on the correlation matrix

Strong negative relationship is observed between the indicator of the quality of education and public expenditure on education per capita per year (PPP), in USD, moderately affect the endogenous variable total expenditure on research and development work, in % of GDP and the percentage of illiterates among the population above 15 years (%).

Building a regression model

Feasible to build a basic regression model where the dependent variable is the quality of education (Y). As regressors we use: public expenditure on education per capita per year (PPP) (XI), total expenditure on research and development work (X2), the percentage of illiterates among the population above 15 years (X3) (table 2).

Table 2 - The basic regression model

Model Summary



R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate








Sum of Squares


Mean Square



















Unstandardized Coefficients






Std. Error








Public expenditure on education per capita per year (PPP), in USD.






Total expenditure on research and development work , in % of GDP






The percentage of illiterates among the population above 15 years (%)






The regression equation is not significant at 5% level, but the coefficients do not adequately describe the relationship between the indicators. The required adjustment of the model.

Model more accurately describes the relationships between the variables: R-squared = 78.2 percent, significant are the coefficients of the variables Public expenditure on education per capita per year (PPP) (table 3).

Table 3 - The regression model No. 2

Model Summarv




R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate








Sum of Squares


Mean Square




















[ Coefficients

Standardized t Coefficients



Std. Error








Public expenditure on education per capita per year (PPP), in USD.






The regression equation is significant and has the form: y = 5,006 -I- 0,007*!

In the absence of the effect of these factor, the quality of education is reduced by 5,006.

When you increase public expenditure on education per capita per year for 1 USD education quality increased by 0,007 units.

The model is adequate, the importance is confirmed for the overall regression equation and for each coefficient.

The figure 1 below shows the results of the forecast performance up

to 2018.

An indicator of the quality of education and total expenditure on research and development work show a decreasing trend. Positive dynamics of the forecast is observed for the volume of public expenditure on education per capita per year.

Figure 1 - Forecast performance up to 2018


New stage of reforming the system of education associated with the government giving this area priority in terms of creation of innovative economy, determines the relevance research approaches to the formation of the state educational policy of Russia.

The changing role of education in information societies, and its transformation into a factor of economic development of many countries put on the agenda the question of the relationship between state educational and social policy on the social and economic functions of education.

The study on the basis of econometric analysis reveal that a significant impact on the quality of education (estimated 1MD World Competitiveness), provides a measure of public expenditure on education per capita per year.


  • 1. Ayvazyan S.A., Mkhitaryan V.S.. Prikladnaya statistika i osnovy ekonometriki. - M.: YuNITI, 2011
  • 2. Eliseyeva I.I., Yuzbashev M.M. Obshchaya teoriya statistiki: Uchebnik / Pod red. I.I.Eliseyevoy. - ML: Finansy i statistika, 2007
  • 3. Statisticheskiye metody prognozirovaniya, Dubrova T.A., 2013
  • 4. Tkach G.F., Filippov V.M., Chistokhvalov V.N. Tendentsii razvitiya i reformy obrazovaniya v mire: Ucheb. posobiye - M.: RUDN, 2013. - 303 s.

Kirilina N.A.

User Generated and Viral Content Analysis in Overheard group on social networking service VKontakte

Kirilina N.A., 1st year master student

Higher School of Economics National Research University Moscow, Russia

What makes people click the Like button on Vkontakte posts? Does it contain a cool text or a funny picture? What Makes online Content Viral? This article explores the group “Overheard” posts. The group “Overheard” is a popular social entertainment project in which users anonymously share their secrets of life. There are more than 3,5 million users in the community. Using a unique data set of 50 thousand group posts, the author examines how topic and presentation shape virality. the results indicate that positive content is more viral than negative content. Results suggest that # family has the highest number of posts. Members of the group often write about everyday elements of our lives (work, family, observation), memorable moments and episodes (childhood, failure).

Ключевые слова: Social Networks, Viral Media, Viral Content, Word of mouth, Viral marketing, Social transmission, Online content.

User generated content (UGC) is relatively young field of research. A research community is just forming around the topic. User generated content has effects on society, economy and the individual himself. User generated content is content made by the general public rather than paid professionals (Wyrwoll 2014). User generated content is mostly available on the internet in the form of blogs, wikis or reviews written about search goods or experience goods. In recent years there has been a big increase in the amount of content generated by users. This is due to the increased use of social platforms and the increased interaction possibilities with internet sites.

Sharing online content is an integral part of modern life. People forward newspaper articles to their friends, pass YouTube videos to their relatives, and send restaurant reviews to their neighbors. Although it is clear that social transmission is both frequent and important, less is known about why certain pieces of online content are more viral than others. Is virality just random, as some argue (e.g., Cashmore 2009), or might certain characteristics predict whether content will be highly shared? This article examines how content characteristics affect virality. The basic measure of virality on Vkontakte is the share and we are interested in which dimensions of the subject of a post leads to sharing.

Thousands of new groups are created in the most popular Russian social network service Vkontakte (https://vk.com) every day. Some groups are dedicated to entertainment content, while others focus on news media. Especially, there are groups that connect insanely talented and imaginative people who create intellectual art neither on the streets, nor in offices, nor galleries, but right here, in the world of the Internet. An example is the group “Overheard” (https://vk.com/overhear).

The group “Overheard” is a popular social entertainment project in which users anonymously share their secrets of life. There are more than 3,5 million users in the community. Topics of stories can be very different. Childhood traumas, fun occasions, romantic confessions, secret dreams. If story refers to a popular subject (e.g., family, failure, dogs, etc.), it is given a hashtag. Some secrets may surprise and delight, others can bring to tears.

The group Overheard is an excellent platform for research. Firstly, posts can be categorized by topics through hashtags. Secondly, for each post we can obtain information about the number of likes and reposts that reflect the user response.

In particular, we have focused on how post topic affects virality. We have analyzed a unique data set of 5O’000 Overheard group posts to examine which issues get the most likes and reposts.

Information about the group posts was received by using VK API. The authors have written code that collected information about the last 50 thousand posts (Appendix A). We have analyzed posts from October 2013 to December 2016. Each post was analyzed according to the following criteria: date of publication, the text of the post, hashtag (if available), number of likes, number of shares.

1. Hashtags with the highest number of posts.

Based on the obtained data the ranking of the hashtags with the highest number of posts was created. #Overheard_family hashtag took first place (2837 posts). Users often share their revelations about the family, as the family is an important part of life of any person. Posts tagged #Over- heard_observations are following in popularity (Figure 1). People publish their thoughts about life and the world.

Many published posts have following hashtags: #Overheard _childhood, #Overheard _failure, #Overheard _work. It can be concluded that the most popular hashtags associated with everyday elements of our lives (work, family, observation), with memorable moments and episodes (childhood, failure).

FIG 1. Top 15 hashtags with the highest number of posts

2. Hashtags with the highest average number of likes.

The number of likes depends on how the post is emotional, vivid and important to the audience. A lot of likes collect posts about dogs, posts with images, posts about the Great Victory or New year and success (Figure 2). Good stories in which the authors share their successes, thoughts about cinema, bright life events collect a lot of likes. Users click «like» button to support the author (hashtags #Overheard_terrible, #Overheard_betrayal).

FIG 2. Top 15 hashtags with the highest average number of likes per post

The more the post is designed in neutral tones, the less likes it gets. If the publication contain neither any negative, nor positive evaluations, nor emotions, readers will also remain indifferent. Results show that users like positive posts.

3. Hashtags with the highest average number of shares.

Meanings of share and likes are different. Like reflects the user emotions, support the author of the post. The key to virality is eliciting an emotional response. Emotional content - either negative or positive - is more likely to be shared. The main indicator of content virality as a large number of shares. What causes people to share post? First of all, the desire to share information with friends. Secondly, emotional aspects of content may also affect whether it is shared.

FIG 3. Top 15 hashtags with the highest average number of shares per post

Members of the group love to share posts tagged #Over- heard_Twitter, #Overheard_Archive, #Overheard_Great_Victory (Figure 3). Among the top hashtags there is only one negative tag (#Overheard_hate). The results indicate that positive content is more viral than negative content.

FIG 4. Infographics based on the results of the analysis


In this study, using a unique data set of all the group Overheard posts published over a three-year period, the authors examine how post subject shapes virality. Based on the obtained data the following rankings were created: hashtags with the highest number of posts; hashtags with the highest average number of likes per post; hashtags with the highest average number of shares per post.

Our results show that members of the group often write about everyday elements of our lives (work, family, observation), memorable moments and episodes (childhood, failure). The more the post is designed in neutral tones, the less likes it gets. Users click «like» button to support the author. The results indicate that positive content is more viral than negative content.


  • 1. Caitlin Wyrwoll (2014) Social Media fundamentals, models, and ranking of user-generated content. Vienna: Springer.
  • 2. Cashmore, Pete (2009), “YouTube: Why Do We Watch?” CNN.com, (December 17), (accessed October 14, 2011), [available at http://www.cnn.com/2009/TECH/12/17/cashmore. youtube/index. htmlj
  • 3. Jonah Berger, Katherine L. Milkman (2012) What Makes Online Content Viral?. Journal of Marketing Research: April 2012, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 192-205.

Kurmanova A. K.

Project method in the formation of socio-cultural competence at the lessons of foreign languages

Kurmanova A.K., 4th year student Eurasian National University named after Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov, Astana, Kazakhstan

The article deals with the method of projects in the process of formation and improving sociocultural competence of students in the primary and secondary schools. The article studies the stages of activity on the project, this clarifies the set of teaching conditions that contribute to the effective application of this method. Modern pedagogical and methodical sciences reveal more and more effective advantages of this technique in teaching foreign languages. The project method provides the freedom to use the language under study in the framework of a certain research and to expand the creative potential of working with educational material.

Keywords: sociocultural competence, project method, methods of teaching foreign languages.

The modern socio-cultural situation provides new opportunities and prospects for cooperation with foreign countries, promoting the dialogue of cultures as a comparison, interaction and understanding of other cultural values. In this regard, the socio-cultural aspect has become a priority in teaching foreign languages. Some kinds of training is a process of transferring the culture to a young generation in a certain volume and different manifestations, which contributes to the formation of the personality. In this process, language is one of the means of cultural transmission. In modern conditions, one can not speak of the formation of a full-fledged person without taking into account the development of his socio-cultural competence [1].

The formation of socio-cultural competence by means of a foreign language is aimed at developing the world outlook of students and preparing them to study the history of mankind, their country and their people, to realize themselves as carriers of national values, to develop the communicative culture of students and their spiritual potential [2].

Socio-cultural competence determines the success of communication between students and representatives of foreign culture, allowing them to feel confident in a foreign environment. Socio-cultural competence consists of two aspects: linguistic and informational. The linguistic aspect includes teaching a foreign language (studying language and culture through language) and sociolinguistics (using the language in various social situations). Information aspect includes information about culture (culture achievements, etiquette, clothing, cuisine, values and customs) and regional studies (information on geographical location, climate, state structure, economic and political system, etc.) [3].

The subject of regional studies is the totality of information about the country of the studied language - its social and economic structure, customs, traditions, culture of the people whose language has become the subject of study. Information of regional character broadens the horizons of students, forms tolerance among them - the quality that is necessary for the modern person, promotes the development of communicative and sociocultural competence among students.

In the middle of the XX century a new scientific discipline appeared - linguistics - regional geography-oriented linguistics, which studies a foreign language in comparison with the native language. Linguistic culture was originally interpreted as a field of methodology, related to the study of ways to familiarize students with the reality of the country of the language being studied. In the 1990s, the content of linguistic culture was clarified, which was interpreted as a methodological discipline that realizes the practice of selecting and presenting in the educational process information about the national and cultural specifics of the speech communication of the native speaker with the goal of forming a socio-cultural competence [4].

Scientists N.D. Gal'skova and N.I. Gez singles out the constituent parts of communicative competence that are foreign-language, which, in the linguistic-cultural understanding, includes knowledge, skills and abilities with a national and cultural meaning:

  • ? linguistic-cultural knowledge of the national peculiarities of the studied language and the formation of skills of operating with means of communication with the national-cultural semantics;
  • ? linguistic-cultural knowledge, skills and abilities that allow to perceive and generate foreign language statements in accordance with the cultural background, nationally-conditioned situation of communication, speech task and general communicative intention;
  • ? linguistic-cultural knowledge, skills and abilities that allow to carry out nationally-specific speech and non-verbal communication with native speakers of the language under study in accordance with the national and cultural characteristics of another's linguistic society.

Such a combination of special lingvistics knowledge, skills and abilities will allow to form a socio-cultural competence and will determine the target level of knowledge of the foreign language being studied and the culture of foreign culture [4].

Thus, linguistic culture and regional studies should serve as a catalyst for students' desire to learn the language, but due to the poorly developed procedural aspect of the work of teachers with such material, the positive potential and the vast opportunities inherent in it are lost. The majority of teachers in acquaintance with extralinguistic data, their fixation and control of assimilation use the same methods as when working on ordinary texts, while here a special system of receptions and exercises that take into account the specifics of the proposed material is needed.

One of the methods of teaching foreign languages is philological. It is used by teachers who, by their basic education, are teachers of language and literature. Teaching country-specific material with the help of a philological technique - this is the linguistic culture [2].

In the modern foreign method of teaching English as a foreign language, great attention is paid to familiarizing foreign students with the culture of Great Britain, the way of life of its people especially British schoolchildren, directly in the process of learning English. We can talk about a certain system of realizing the linguistic-cultural approach in all three levels of instruction.

In the first stage students learn the implicit (mainly through authentic illustrations) from the first lessons with the individual realities of Great Britain.

At the second stage the language preparation of students allows them to become more acquainted with the history, culture of the UK, the way of life and problems of British schoolchildren. At this stage in every lesson in the practice of speech, all learned speech actions are necessarily reproduced in situations of a regional nature.

At the third stage the previously obtained knowledge about the country of the studied language (communicative-behavioral standards in various spheres of communication, integrative skills of communicating in English in informal and official communication) is systematized. Thus, at this stage, the ethics of discussion in English are taught when discussing the culture, styles and way of life of people in English-speaking countries [2].

Work with projects and messages of regional character is used when acquaintance of students with the material, starting from the middle level. This provides a good basis for the repetition and implementation of interdisciplinary links, and also encourages the active involvement of students in the dialogue of cultures [5]. In addition to general academic skills (systematic systematic presentation of the prepared material and elementary skills of scientific research), project activities contribute to the formation of skills to use speech cliches, frequency phrases, certain grammatical forms. In addition to intellectual and communicative skills, it is very important that through these types of work students develop creative skills.

Project activities contribute to the formation of socio-cultural competence at the elementary level during teaching a foreign language at the initial stage. Using the project method in foreign language lessons help to teach students to understand a speech in a foreign language, inform the company about themselves, induce the interlocutor to speech behavior, ask questions and answer them, express consent or disagreement, desire or unwillingness, approval or disapproval [5]. In addition, the application of the project method increases the students' interest in the teaching in general and in the study of a foreign language, in particular, by developing internal motivation by transferring the center of the learning process from teacher to student.

The project methodology allows individual work on a topic that is a great interest to each participant of the project, which undoubtedly entails increased motivated activity of the student. He chooses the object of research, he decides for himself: to confine himself to a textbook (simply by performing the next exercise), or to read other literature. However, often students turn to additional sources of information, analyze, compare, leaving the most important and entertaining [5].

It should be noted that not all students are immediately and easily involved in the work on the project.

You can not offer a task that one or another student can not fulfill. Tasks must correspond to the individual level at which each participant of the project is located. It is necessary to help everyone to decide on a specific topic, advise on what to look for and how to present their results.

It is this moment that determines the main job of the teacher of English with his students: he discusses the intermediate results, corrects errors in the use of language units. Schoolchildren have a fear of a foreign language, they are better at maintaining its logical system. This kind of work provides many opportunities to apply the passed grammatical phenomena and structures. Undoubtedly, the grammatical units of a foreign language worked out in this situation are more firmly fixed in the memory of the student.

The use of new information technologies not only revitalizes and diversifies the educational process, but also opens great opportunities for expanding the educational framework, which undoubtedly carries a huge motivational potential and contributes to the principles of individualizing learning. Project activity allows students to act as authors, creators, enhances creativity, expands not only the general outlook, but also contributes to the expansion of linguistic knowledge.

The project method has a number of advantages over traditional teaching methods, such as: increasing the motivation of students when learning English, visual integration of knowledge in various subjects of the school curriculum, and space for creative and creative activity.


  • 1. Monahan, J. Ethnic Diversity / J. Monaghan- Foreign & Commonwealth Office, 2001. 24 p.
  • 2. Pochinok T.V. Formation of socio-cultural competence / Foreign languages at school. 2006. №7. Pp. 2-6.
  • 3. Podoprigorova F.A. The Internet in foreign-language teaching / Foreign languages at school. 2003. №6. Pp. 25-31.
  • 4. Serikov V.V. Education and personality. Theory and practice, the design of pedagogical Systems - M., Логос. 1999. 286 c.
  • 5. Vereschagin E.N. Fanguage and culture - 2010. 237 p.

Айешееа Г,А,

  • [1] MnHHCTepcTBO o6pa30BaHHH n HayKH PO. http://MHHo6pHayKn.pcj)
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