Семантическая характеристика производных слов глагола «think»

Рассмотрим производные глагола think, а именно существительные think (n), thought (n), thinking (п)и наречие thoughtfully (adv).

Существительное think(n), согласно дефиниционной информации, представленной в Большом Оксфордском Словаре, имеет 3 лексико-семантических варианта (ЛСВ).

JICB.l.a An act of (continued) thinking; a meditation, b. 1 .b nonce-use. An idea, a thought.

ЛСВ 2.a What one thinks about something; an opinion. b.2.b to have another think coming: to be greatly mistaken.

ЛСВ 3 attrib. and Comb, (nonce-wds.), as thinkache, pain of thought, mental suffering; think-room, a room or apartment for meditation.

Дифференциальные значения существительного «think» можно представить в следующей схеме:

<медитация >

< идея, мысль>

< мнение >

Существительное thought(n), согласно дефиниционной информации, представленной в Большом Оксфордском Словаре имеет 7 лексико-семантических вариантов (ЛСВ).

ЛСВ - 1. a The action or process of thinking; mental action or activity b As a function or attribute of a living being: Thinking as a permanent characteristic or condition; the capacity of thinking; the thinking faculty; in early use often nearly = mind.

c The product of mental action or effort; what one thinks; that which is in the mind.

d In a collective sense (with defining adj.): The intellectual activity or mental product characteristic of the thinkers of a particular class, time, or place.

ЛСВ - 2. a A single act or product of thinking; an item of mental activity; something that one thinks or has thought; a thing that is in the mind; an idea, notion.

b.An idea suggested or recalled to the mind; a reflection, a consideration, c Second thoughts: ideas occurring subsequently.

ЛСВ - 3. Proverbial Phrases (from 1 and 2): а.З.а as swift as thought ЛСВ - 4. a Consideration, attention, heed, care, regard, to take thought, to consider, meditate.

b Meditation, mental contemplation, c Conception, imagination, fancy.

d The entertaining of some project in the mind; the idea or notion of doing something, as contemplated or entertained in the mind.

e Remembrance, ‘mind’, fto hold in thought, fto have thought on, to keep in mind, remember.

f Mental anticipation, expectation.

g An opinion or judgement; a belief or supposition; what one thinks of or about a thing or person.

h In negative contexts: not to give (something or someone) a (or another) thought, not to think at all (or any more) about, to dismiss from one's mind.

ЛСВ - 5. a Anxiety or distress of mind; solicitude; grief, sorrow, trouble, care, vexation, to take thought, to trouble oneself, grieve, be anxious or distressed. Obs. (exc. dial.: see Eng. Dial. Diet.).

b transf. A cause of distress or anxiety, a ‘trouble’

ЛСВ - 6. a A very small amount, a very little, a trifle(Usually, now always, adverbial).

b U.S. A very short length of time, a moment; usu. in advb. phr.

ЛСВ - 7. a attrib., as thought-accent (accent of thought), thought- action, thought-barrier, thought-box, thought-centre, thought-construction, thought-content, thought-coop, thought-defect, thought-entity, thought-form, thought-habit, thought-life.

Изучение дефиниционной информации позволяет заключить, что это существительное выражает не только общее значение мышления или мыслительного действия, но и передает самые разнообразные оттенки этого значения. Дифференциальные значения существительного thought можно представить в следующем виде <действие или процесс мышления>

<ментальное действие или деятельность>

<идея, предложенная или восстановленная в уме>

<раздумье, медитативное соображение, размышление, вообра- жение>

<ментальная антиципация, ожидание>

<мнение или решение>

<убеждение или предположение>

<озабоченность; горе, печаль>

Приведем дефиниционные значения существительного thinking(n). В словаре (БОС) оно имеет три ЛСВ:

ЛСВ l.a Thought, cogitation, meditation, mental action or activity, b pi. Thoughts; meditations, courses of thought, c Imagination, fancy; idle fancy, rare.

d With various constructions: see the verb, there is no thinking, one cannot or need not think.

ЛСВ 2 The holding of an opinion or opinions; judging, mental viewing; opinion, judgement, belief; phr. to (f after, in) my thinking = in my opinion.

ЛСВ 3. attrib. and Comb., as thinking-material, thinking-party, thinking-place, thinking process, thinking-room, thinking-substance; thinking- box, colloq.

Дифференциальные значения существительного thinking(n) можно представить в следующем виде

<ментальное действие или активность>

<мысль; медитация>

<воображение>

<мнение, оценка, ментальный взгляд>

<решение, убеждение, вера>

Наречие thoughtfully(adv) является производным от существительного thought и в словаре (БОС) приводится только один ЛСВ: In а thoughtful manner; with thought or consideration; meditatively, musingly; reflectively; considerately, kindly; оно передает одно общее значение - способ размышления, состояние мышления.

Существительное opinion(n), входит в синонимический ряд слова thought, а также используется при описании дефиниций глагола think. В словаре (БОС) оно имеет 9 ЛСВ.

ЛСВ l.a What one thinks or how one thinks about something; judgement resting on grounds insufficient for complete demonstration; belief of something as probable, or as seeming to one's own mind to be true, though not certain or established. (Distinguished from knowledge, conviction, or certainty; but sometimes = belief.) / in my opinion: according to my thinking; as I think, as it seems to me, a matter of opinion: a matter about which each may have his own opinion; a disputable point.

b Qualified by common, general, public, vulgar, etc.: Such judgement or belief on the part of a number, or the majority, of persons; what is generally thought about something.

c. Also, in same sense, without qualification.

ЛСВ 2. a (With an and pi.) What one thinks about a particular thing, subject, or point; a judgement formed or a conclusion reached; a belief, view, notion.

b pious opinion (R.C. Ch.): a belief commonly accepted, but not enjoined as a dogma or matter of faith. Hence transf. (in general use): A belief cherished in the mind, but not insisted on or carried out in practice.

ЛСВ 3. Phrase, to be of opinion: to hold the belief or view; to think (in a specified way) about something; to opine. (Often with defining clause: I am of opinion that ? ? = I think that ? ?).

ЛСВ 4. The formal statement by a member of an advisory body, an expert, or professional man, or the like, of what he thinks, judges, or advises upon a question or matter submitted to and considered by him; considered advice; as a legal opinion or medical opinion, to get an opinion of counsel, etc. Phr. a second (or another) opinion, the opinion of a second medical adviser; also in transf. and extended uses.

ЛСВ 5.a What one thinks of a person or thing; estimation, or an estimate, of character, quality, or value.

b spec. Good, high, or favourable estimate; esteem. (Now only with negative, or such adjs. as great.).

c Favourable estimate of oneself or one's own abilities; either in bad sense (self-conceit, arrogance, dogmatism), or in good sense (self- confidence).

ЛСВ 6. What is thought of one by others; the estimation (esp. good estimation) in which one stands; standing; reputation, repute, character, credit (of being so and so, or of possessing some quality).

ЛСВ 7. The thought of what is likely to happen; expectation; apprehension.

ЛСВ 8. Report, rumour. [A Latinism of transl.]

ЛСВ 9. attrib. and Comb., as opinion-former, opinion leader, opinion maker, etc.; opinion-forming, opinion-making (also vbl. n.), opinion-tapping ppl. adjs.; opinion poll, the assessment of the opinion of all.

Дифференциальные значения существительного opinion можно представить в следующем схематичном виде

<личное мнение, основанное на собственных убеждениях без до- казательств>

сформированное решение или вывод>

<убеждение, вера>

<мнение эксперта>

Сценка субъекта или объекта>

Самооценка субъекта (положительная или отрицательная)> <жидание, понимание>

Сообщение, слухи>

 
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